Bibliography, Hispano Mundo, 1995-2005. < > (2005)

This website is sponsored by The site discusses a wide range of issues that are important to Latinos as well as reviewing the large impact that Latinos have made, and continue to make, on America .


Bar Diaz, M. “Diversity Bringing Change to North Miami Politics,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel on the Web, 6 May 2001, < > (10 December 2005).

In her article, Bar Diaz discusses the possibility of a Haitian-American candidate becoming the new mayor, as well as the possibility of one of three Haitian-American candidates winning an open council seat. She talks about the evolution of Miami demographics with respect to Haitian-Americans, and the goals of the Haitian-American community.


Bebic, Sanja, The Cultural Orientation Project: Cuban Immigration to the United States , 2004 < > (18 February 2004).

The Cultural Orientation Project is a program based out of Washington , DC that was established to create links between US and overseas cultural orientation training programs for refugees settling in the US . Bebic discusses the three major waves of Cubans coming to the United States . He also addresses the political and economic ‘push' and ‘pull' factors that have effected their immigration.


Berlado, Milto. DOT Departmental Hispanic Employment Program. < > (2005)

The Department of Transportation Nationwide is known for its implementation of the Hispanic Employment Program (HEP). HEP, originally started as part of Nixon's “16-point program,” was created as means to reach out and create a bond with the Latino community by providing employment and education.


Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, The Haitian Community in Miami-Dade, A Growing Middle Class Supplement, 2005, < > (10 December 2005).

This source gave us information about the Haitian community in Miami . It explains the history of and motives for Haitian immigration, as well as the socioeconomic status of the Haitian community.


City of Miami , Office of the Mayor, About the Mayor, 2004, < > (10 December 2005).

This webpage talks about Mayor Diaz's goals, projects, and accomplishments. It also emphasizes the progress of Miami during his term.


Donlan, Leni, Paul, Elizabeth., Transforming a City, 2004, < > (22 April 2004)

This website is a branch of the Library of Congress's Learning Page site. This article discusses the impact that Cuban immigrants have had on the United States . The site addresses issues from entertainment to politics to economics, particularly in Florida .


Fears, Darryl. “Political Map in Florida is Changing: Puerto Ricans Affect Lation Vote,” Washington Post , Sunday, 11 July 2004, p.A1

This article was written by Washington Post Staff Writer Darryl Fears for the Sunday Edition, July 11, 2004 front page. Fears discusses the large migration of Puerto Ricans that moved to Central Florida from New York City after the World Trade Center incident on September 11,2001. The article specifically discusses the effect the Puerto Ricans have had on the political scene since they're arrival in contrast to the previously dominated Cuban Latino vote.


Figueroa, Hector. “Puerto Rican Workers: A Profile” NACLA Report on the Americas . 1996. < > (November/December 1996)

The North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA) is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1966. NACLA provides the world community with information on major trends in Latin American and its relations with the United States. In this article Figueroa discusses types of jobs and work conditions dealt with by Puerto Ricans both in the United States and on the island of Puerto Ricans over the past 5 decades.


Fox, G. Hispanic Nation: Culture, Politics, and the Constructing of Identity (Tuscon: The University of Arizona Press, 1996).

In his book, Fox explains the reason why most Cuban-Americans sided with the Republican Party. He also talks about the varying political opinions of different groups of Cuban-Americans, such as “la tribu.”


Grenier, Guillermo J. and Stepick III, Alex Miami Now! Immigration, Ethnicity, and Social Change . (Gainsville, Fl.: University Press of Florida,1992), 112.

Guillermo J. Grenier is the director of the Florida Center for Labor Research and Studies and the chairman of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at FIU. Alex Stepick III is the director of the comparative sociology graduate program and associate professor of anthropology and sociology at FIU. These two very accountable men have written a book on Miami and the immigrants who have come to Miami . This book is a lengthy account of our website basically. It explains the impact in general each immigration group has has on Miami . They say that it is the multicultural crest of the wave of the future of America .


Gonzalez, Juan. 2000. Harvest of Empire. ( New York : The Penguin Group)

Harvest of Empire is a book in which we received some of the articles in class, meaning that is credible. It was very helpful for the history of these countries and the people in them. It explained the Latin American countries and the issues that occurred which pushed them out of the country. It was easy to understand and very descriptive in the history of these countries.


Haiti Program at Trinity College, Haiti and the U.S.A.: The Evolution of the Haitian Diaspora in the U.S.A., 2003, <> (10 December 2005).

This website included a detailed look at the stages of recent Haitian immigration, beginning in the 1950's. It explains the conditions in Haiti that caused Haitians to immigrate, and it distinguishes between the different waves of immigrants.


“Historic Events Timeline: 1870's”. Miami Beach 411 . 2006. < .> ( 3 December 2005)

This website highlights major famous figures who have impacted the growth of Miami Beach . This exact website is the 1870s and what occurred in the history of Miami Beach . This is a valid website which is sponsored by major companies that not only shows the history but new events and hotels and different aspects about Miami Beach . But for this exact website, it was personally useful for our history section of Miami and how it all began.


“Hispanic or Latino by Type, Miami-Dade County , Florida ” <;-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_QTP9&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-_lang=en&-_sse=on> (10 November 2005)

This website gives the 2000 Census for Miami-Dade County Hispanics. It outlines the numbers compared to the total population and separates each Latino country and how many people are from each. This was helpful to see the actual account of how many of the immigrants we researched are actually in Miami .


Miami Dade County Public Schools : Bilingual Education and World Languages, 2005 < >

This site is linked through Miami-Dade County Public schools (MDCPS) system's home page to review the Bilingual education programs implemented in the school system.


Miami , Florida . Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005 < > (5 November 2005)

This is a free encyclopedia online which gives a brief overview of Miami-Dade County and a brief history and culture description of the area. It is not the most in depth source but it was useful just to get an overview in order to be able to research more on certain issues. It is an easy way to find simple facts about Miami , but we did not rely to much on this website to find the information. It is a good way to find information out but more broad research and to find details find other sources.


Novas, H. Everything You need to Know about Latino History ( New York : Plume Book,2003),

This book takes each group of immigrants and explains how they came, why they came, and where they are now or what they are doing now. Novas gives a very explicit descriptions of these immigrants which is specifically helpful to the history section of the immigrants which have impacted Miami . It is a good and easy read so that was helpful to research for the website and all the research is very in depth which makes it helpful for much of the history.


Páez, M. and Suárez-Orozco, M. (Eds.). Latinos: Remaking America ( Berkley : University of California Press, 2002).

This book focuses on the significant role that Cubans played in shaping Miami into what it is today. It talks about the different generation of Cuban immigrants, the discrimination that Cuban-Americans experienced, and the political power that they have achieved. It also explains the reasons for their mostly invariable and unified political views, as well as how their political views are beginning to change.


“Power Surge : Two newly elected senators represent the growing Latino clout in Washington .” Hispanic Magazine, January/February 2005, < > (10 December 2005).

This article talks about Ken Salazaar and Mel Martinez, and their roles as Latino Senators in the House of Representatives. It includes their biographical information and political objectives. In addition, it predicts the political future of Latinos.


Ramos, J.  The Other Face of America : Chronicles of the Immigrants Shaping Our Future ( New York : Harper Collins Publishers, 2002), 138.

In his book, Ramos talks about the history of immigration to the United States from Central-America, and explains the motives for immigration to the United States by Central-Americans.  He explains the living conditions and political situations in each Central-American country.  The book also includes quotations from Central-American immigrants about their experience of immigration feelings once living in the U.S.


Ricker, Dan. “Schools cleanup formidable, ex-inspector says. The Miami Herald On-line . Available from < > (5 September 2005)

In this article posted on the Miami Hearld On-line, Ricker discusses the corruption, and the denial of its existence, within the Miami Dade County Public School (MDCPS) system. He also gives an overview of how large MDCPS system is.


Rodriguez, Clara E., “Puerto Ricans: Immigrants and Migrants,” [Available online]. Americans All: A National Education Program. Available from < >

Dr. Clara E. Rodriguez is a professor of sociology at Fordham University and the author of several books, particularly pertaining to the Puerto Rican struggle. In this chapter from one of her books, Rodriguez discusses the immigration/migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States. This was particularly useful in making the connection between economic hardships on the island and the migration waves.


Sepulveda, Y. City of Miami, Office of Vice Mayor Matti Herrera Bower, Miami Beach Vice Mayor Matti Herrera Bower to be Honored by the Children's Trust at the “Champions for Children Awards Ceremony,” 15 September 2005, <> (10 December 2005).

This article praises Vice Mayor Bower for her dedication to children's rights. It also talks about some of her areas of interest as vice mayor.


Snell, Lisa, $100 Million Fraud in Miami-Dade Schools , Reason Magazine, < > (1 June 2004)

The Reason Foundation was founded in 1968 and has since been publishing a well respected, monthly magazine which addresses a variety of political, public policy research, and cultural issues. Lisa Snell, author of this article, is the director of education and child welfare at Reason Foundation. Snell's commentary from the School Reform News on June 1, 2004 discusses the $100 million fraud case the occurred earlier that year in Miami-Dade county public schools.


“Top 10 Cities for Hispanics to Live In”. Hispanice Magazine, July/August 2004, Feature Article. Availble online at < >

Hispanic Magazine is one of the top selling Hispanic magazines with a reader base of approximately 280,000. This particular article, featured in the July/August 2004 issue, lists and discusses the top 10 cities for Hispanics to live in. On the list, Miami comes in No.2 only to Austin , TX . Miami 's pros include the large Hispanic population and Spanish-speaking population. One con it discusses is the current economic shrinkage leading to fewer opportunities in the lower and middle class income bracket.


U.S. Census Bureau, State and County Quick Facts: Miami-Dade County , FL , 2000. < > (13 December 2005)

This is an easy to use, quick census reference provided by the US Census Bureau. It provides key people, business, and geography Quickfacts.


U.S. Census Bureau, Miami Dade County, Florida, 2004, < > (10 December 2005).

This website gave us the percentage of the Miami-Dade County population that is Hispanic or Latino.


Valbrun, M., Haitian-Americans: Their Search for Political Identity in South Florida , 2001, < > (10 December 2005).

Valbrun explains the history of Haitian immigration to the United States , and specifically profiles Haitian-Americans in South Florida . She discusses the influence that Haitian-Americans are gaining in the field of politics. Most of her article is dedicated to describing the success of the first Haitian-American State Representative, Phillip Brutus.