chichen itza
el castillo
el juego de pelota grande
el caracol
gruta de balankanché
grupo de las mil columnas
templo de los guerreros
platforma de venus
las otras maravillas del mundo
chichen itza » gruta de balankanché

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The Caves of Balankance are a network of sacred caves located just west of Chichen Itza. They hold a large collection of pots and idols, which can still be seen today.
4.4mg (0.02mmol) of Pd(OAc)2 was added to 11.2mg (0.025mmol) of TDMPP to create a mixture in which 1mL of distilled toluene1 was added. The mixture was stirred2 for 3 days at room temperature3. 0.02mL (0.0004mmol) of the newly created red solution was then added to the solution consisting of 3.2mg (0.0034mmol) of compound 214 and 1.6 mL of toluene under N25 conditions. It was then stirred again for 3 days until it was filtered6 via a short plug of silica gel. The solvent was then removed under rotovaporization7 and the resulting product 308 was purified via flash column chromatography9 resulting in a white-ish paste.
1: Toluene:

2: Reaction under stir: The reaction runs with the help of a magnetic stir bar

3: Room temperature: generally 25°C.

4: Compound 21 (diyne): molecule with two triple bonds.

5: N2 is nitrogen gas.

6: Gravity filtration using silica medium in which unwanted parts of a solution can be isolated for waste: (example of gravity filtration below)

7: Rotovaporization results in liquids separating quickly due to a combination of pressure, air, water, and heat transfer. This allows for easy separation of solvents from reaction products based on their boiling points.

8: Compound 30:

9: Flash Column Chromatography: type of chromatography in which a buret is filled with a good amount of silica gel combined with a solvent resulting in slush. Glass wiring is placed in the bottom not allowing for slush leakage. Product is poured through the top of the buret, allowing for gravity to separate the polar and nonpolar components.


IUPAC (The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) defines a macrocycle to be a cyclic macromolecule, which is a molecule of high mass. Compound 30 is one such macrocycle and is synthesized via intramolecular macrocyclication, which is otehrwise known as the creation of a macrocycle. Below is an overview of hte intramolecular macrocyclization of Compound 21 to macrocycle, Compound 30.


A catalyst facilitates a reaction but it does not directly undergo the reaction. In this paper, palladium is used as a metal catalyst to facilitate macrocyclization.