Chloe Armstrong

Assistant Professor, Lawrence University.


I work primarily on topics in early modern philosophy.  

In my dissertation I defend the view that Leibniz is a necessitarian   he thinks that all truths are metaphysically necessary.  I argue that Leibniz's accounts of contingency are meant to show how he can find surrogate notions of contingency within his necessitarian framework.  I explore the importance of these surrograte notions for Leibniz's understanding of possible worlds, divine and human freedom, and the laws of nature.

Here is an abstract. 

I am also interested in Leibniz's subsequent intellectual influence.  In “Bolzano, Kant and Leibniz" (2014), Sandra Lapointe and I examine the Kantian and Leibnizian origins of Bolzano's notion of analyticity.  I have additional research interests in contemporary metaphysics and epistemology, as well as early analytic philosophy.


Fall 2015 I am teaching Freshman Studies 100 at Lawrence University.  

Winter 2016 I am teaching Intro to Philosophy 100, and History of Philosophy 200: Aristotle and Plato, at Lawrence University.


Curriculum Vitae

Department of Philosophy

Lawrence University

711 E. Boldt Way

Appleton, Wi


Upcoming talks

"Necessitarianism in Leibniz's Theodicy"

Southwest Seminar in Early Modern Philosophy, 27 February 2016.