Innovation's Organizing Principles


This prototype was based on exploration, which began by way of ideas and references in Thomas A. Stewart's Intellectual Capital.

A subsequent journey of discovery and "seeing anew" was enabled by the types of resources listed below:

Mark S. Albion, True to yourself : leading a values-based business, (Berrett-Koehler: San Francisco, 2006)

Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer, The progress principle : using small wins to ignite joy, engagement, and creativity at work, (Harvard Business Review Press: Boston, 2011)

Teresa M. Amabile, Creativity in context, (Westview Press: Boulder, CO, 1996)

Teresa M. Amabile, Growing up creative : nurturing a lifetime of creativity, (Crown Publishers: New York, 1989)

American Public Media, Speaking of Faith, transcript, January 28, 2010

American Public Media, Speaking of Faith, transcript, Jacqueline Novogratz, August 2010

George Anders, The rare find : spotting exceptional talent before everyone else (Portfolio Penguin: New York, 2011)

Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa, Academically Adrift, Limited Learning on College Campuses, (University of Chicago Press: 2011)

Aspen Institute, “Why Teach for America Works," video, July 5, 2009,

Dominic Barton, “Capitalism for the long term,” Harvard Business Review, March 2011

Steven Berglas,, video

Steven Berglas,, August 3, 2010

Mark Bittman, "Bad Food? Tax It, and Subsidize Vegetables," New York Times, July 23, 2011

Steven G. Blank, The Four Steps to the Epiphany ( Foster City, CA, 2006)

David Bornstein, How to Change the World, Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas, (Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2004)

David Bornstein, "Trusting Families to Help Themselves," The New York Times, July 19, 2011

Larry Brilliant, 2010, “Great Conversations,” University of Minnesota,

Larry Brilliant, March 16, 2011, “Sustaining Humanity,” 10th Annual Wege Lecture, University of Michigan

Tim Brown, Change by Design (HarperCollins, New York: 2009)

Jerome S. Bruner, The Process of Education, (Harvard University Press, 1960)

Jerome S. Bruner, On Knowing, Essays for the Left Hand, (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1962)

Jerome S. Bruner, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, (Harvard University Press, 1986)

Leigh Buchanan, “Inside the Minds of Great Entrepreneurs,” Inc., February 2011

Bo Burlingham, Small Giants: Companies that Choose to Be Great Instead of Big, (New York: Portfolio, 2005)

John A. Byrne, World Changers: 25 Entrepreneurs Who Changed Business as We Knew It, (Portfolio/Penguin, 2011)

Marvin Carnoy and Henry Levin, ch 2, “The Meaning of Educational Reform.”

Steve Case, video, Feb. 24, 2010, Stanford University,

Quote within article by Leigh Buchanan, “How Great Entrepreneurs Think,” Inc Magazine, February 1, 2011

Center for Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship, Duke University, “Developing the Field of Social Entrepreneurship,” A Report from the Center for Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship, June 2008

Clayton M. Christensen and Michael E. Raynor, The Innovator’s Solution, (Harvard University Press: Boston, 2003)

Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator's Dilemma, (Collins Business Essentials: New York, 2005)

Clayton M. Christensen and Henry J. Eyring, The Innovative University: Changing the DNA of Higher Education from the Inside Out, (Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, 2011)

Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn, & Curtis W. Johnson, Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns, (McGraw-Hill: New York, 2011)

Richard Clarke,, Colbert Report, video, January 17, 2007

David K. Cohen, Milbrey W. McLaughlin, Joan E. Talbert, editors, Teaching for Understanding, Challenges for Policy and Practice, (Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, 1993)

David K. Cohen and Susan L. Moffitt, The Ordeal of Equality, Did Federal Regulation Fix the Schools? (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 2009)

Alan Cooper, The Inmates are Running the Asylum: Why High Tech Products Drive Us Crazy and How to Restore the Sanity, (Sans Publishing, 2004)

Robert, K. Cooper, The Other 90% : How to Unlock your Vast Untapped Potential for Leadership and Life, (Crown Business: New York, 2001)

Anne Craft, Howard Gardner, and Guy Claxton throughout Creativity, Wisdom, and Trusteeship: Exploring the Role of Education, (Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA, 2008)

Michael Crow and William B. Dabars, Designing the New American University, (John Hopkins University Press: 2015)

Leslie R Crutchfield and Heather McLeod Grant, Forces for Good: The Six Practices of High-Impact Nonprofits, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, "Society, culture and person: A systems view of creativity," in R. J. Sternberg (ed.), The Nature of Creativity, (Cambridge University Press: New York, 1988)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow : the psychology of optimal experience, (Harper Perennial: New York, 1991)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, The Evolving Self: A Psychology for the Third Millenium, (HarperCollins: New York, 1993)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, (HarperCollins: New York, 1996)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Barbara Schneider, Becoming adult : how teenagers prepare for the world of work, (Basic Books: New York, 2000)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Good business : leadership, flow, and the making of meaning, (Viking: New York, 2003)

William Damon, Path to Purpose, How Young People Find their Calling in Life (Simon&Schuster: New York, 2008)

Cathy N Davidson, Now you see it : how the brain science of attention will transform the way we live, work, and learn, (Viking: New York, 2011)

J. Gregory Dees, "The Meaning of 'Social Entrepreneurship,'"̂ Original Draft: October 31, 1998 Reformatted and revised: May 30, 2001, sourced from the Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship at Duke University's Fuqua School of Business

J. Gregory Dees, Jed Emerson, and Peter Economy, Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs, (Wiley: New York, 2001)

J. Gregory Dees, Jed Emerson, and Peter Economy, Strategic tools for social entrepreneurs : enhancing the performance of your enterprising nonprofit, (Wiley: New York, 2002)

Jeff DeGraff and Shawn E. Quinn, Leading Innovation (McGraw-Hill: New York, 2007)

Applied positive psychology : improving everyday life, health, schools, work, and society, edited by Stewart I. Donaldson, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Jeanne Nakamura, (Psychology Press/Routledge: New York, 2011)

Jeff Dyer, with Hal B. Gregersen and Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator's DNA, (Harvard Business Press: Boston, 2011)

Bill Drayton, “Innovations” / winter 2006, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

(Bill Drayton), "Entrepreneur for Society," Bill Drayton and Ashoka, 2006, DVD

Peter F. Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, (HarperBusiness, 1985)

Peter F. Drucker, Managing in the Next Society, (St. Martin’s Press: New York, 2002)

Peter F. Drucker, Post-Capitalist Society, (Harper Press, 1993)

The Drucker Institute,, December 29, 2010, Drucker Exchange 1.0. Produced by the Drucker Institute, Claremont Graduate University

Jeff Dyer, Hal Gregersen, and Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator's DNA, (Harvard Business Review Press: Boston, 2011)

Jacquelynne Eccles, Distinguished University Professor lecture, "Two Roads Diverged in a Yellow Wood," delivered March 14, 2011, University of Michigan

Carol Eikleberry, The Career Guide for Creative and Unconventional People, (Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California, 2007)

"The Entrepreneur of the Decade," Inc. Magazine, April 1, 1989

“Entrepreneurship in American Higher Education,” A Report from the Kauffman Panel on Entrepreneurship Curriculum in Higher Education, Kauffman Foundation, p 12

Judy Estrin, Closing the Innovation Gap, Reigniting the Spark of Creativity in a Global Economy, (McGraw-Hill, 2009)

David Henry Feldman, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Howard Gardner, Changing the World, A Framework for the Study of Creativity, (Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT, 1994)

Margalit Fox, “Owsley Stanley, Artisan of Acid, Is Dead at 76,” New York Times, Obituary, March 14, 2011

Chrystia Freeland, “The Rise of the New Ruling Class, The Atlantic, January-February 2011

Howard Gardner, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and William Damon, Good work : when excellence and ethics meet, (Basic Books: New York, 2001)

John W. Gardner,Self-renewal; the individual and the innovative society (Harper & Rowe, New York, 1963)

John W. Gardner, On Leadership, (The Free Press: New York, NY, 1990)

Michael E. Gerber, Awakening the Entrepreneur Within, (HarperCollins Publisher: New York, 2008)

Thomas N.Gladwin and David Berdish, “MBAs are unprepared for a morally complex future,” Financial Times of London, Feb. 8, 2010

Seth Godin, Linchpin : are you indispensible? (Portfolio: New York, 2010)

Seth Godin, Whatcha gonna do with that duck? : and other provocations, 2006-2012, (Penguin Portfolio: New York, 2012)

Stephen Goldsmith, The Power of Social Innovation (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2010)

Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, Competing for the Future, (Harvard Business School Press, 1997)

Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management, 1987, “The Knowledge Creating Company.”

Harvard Business Review, Dec. 2009, “The Innovator’s DNA”

Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford University, "Bootcamp Bootleg,"

Andrew J. Hoffman, Finding Purpose, Environmental Stewardship as a Personal Calling, (Greenleaf Publishing Ltd: U.K, 2016)

Richard Hofstadter, Anti-intellectualism in American Life, (Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1963)

Institute for the Future (

Walter Isaacson, Einstein : his life and universe, (Simon & Schuster: New York, 2007)

Walter Isaacson, American sketches : great leaders, creative thinkers, and heroes of a hurricane, (Simon & Schuster: New York, 2009)

Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (Simon & Schuster: New York, 2011)

Steve Jobs, Commencement Address, Stanford University, 2005,

Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation, (New York Riverhead Books, 2010)

Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, (Farrar, Straus and Giroux: New York, 2011)

Dean Kamen comments within Jason Koebler, "Segway Inventor: Fear of Failure Kills U.S. Innovation," U.S. News, November 2, 2011,

Jon R. Katzenbach and Zia Khan, “Money Is Not The Best Motivator,”, 4-6-10

Kauffman Foundation, “Entrepreneurship in American Higher Education,” A Report from the Kauffman Panel on Entrepreneurship Curriculum in Higher Education

Tom Kelley, The Art of Innovation, (New York : Doubleday: New York, 2001)

Tom Kelley, The Ten Faces of Innovation, (Currency Doubleday: New York, 2005)

Salman Khan, The One World Schoolhouse, (Twelve, Hachette Book Group: New York, 2012)

Wendy Kopp, One Day, All Children: The Unlikely Triumph Of Teach For America And What I Learned Along The Way, (Public Affairs: New York, 2001)

Wendy Kopp, A Chance to Make History, What Works and What Doesn’t in Providing an Excellent Education for All, (New York: Public Affairs, 2011)

A. G. Lafley and Ram Charan, The Game-Changer, (Crown Business: New York, 2008)

Henry Levin, “Why Is Educational Entrepreneurship So Difficult?” January 2006

Marc Levinson, The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger, (Princeton University Press, 2006)

Paul C. LIght, The Search for Social Entrepreneurship, (Brookings Institution Press: Washington, D.C., 2008)

Charles E. Lindblom and David K. Cohen, Usable Knowledge, Social Science and Problem Solving, (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 1979)

Josh Linkner, Disciplined Dreaming, (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2011)

Nicholas Lore, The Pathfinder, (Simon & Schuster: New York, 1998)

Roger Martin, The Opposable Mind (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2007);

Roger L. Martin & Sally Osberg, "Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition," Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring 2007

Jane McGonigal, February 2010, "Gaming can make a better world,"

Ravi Mohan, keynote speaker at Zell-Lurie Institute’s 2009 “Entrepalooza”

Geoffrey A. Moore, Crossing the Chasm: Marketing And Selling High-Tech Products To Mainstream Customers (Harper Business Essentials: New York, 2002, 2006)

"Netflix Freedom & Responsibility Culture,"

New York Times, “A Box? Or a Spaceship? What Makes Kids Creative,” Dec. 15, 2010

Donald A. Norman,

Jacqueline Novogratz, The Blue Sweater, (Rodale, New York, 2009)

Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, (John Wiley & Sons: 2010)

David N. Perkins, Archimedes' bathtub : the art and logic of breakthrough thinking, (W.W. Norton: New York, 2000)

Donald J. Peurach, Seeing Complexity in Public Education: Problems, Possibilities, and Success for All (Oxford University Press: Oxford, New York, 2011)

Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer, “The Big Idea: Creating Shared Value,” Harvard Business Review, January-February, 2011

Arthur G. Powell, Eleanor Farrar, and David K. Cohen, The Shopping Mall High School (Houghton Mifflin, 1985)

C. K. Prahalad, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, (Wharton School Publishing, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005)

C. K. Prahalad and M. S. Krishnan, The New Age of Innovation, (McGraw-Hill: New York, 2008)

C.K. Prahalad, video, Keynote Address at AcumenFund 2009 Fellows Graduation,

Robert E. Quinn, Change the World: How Ordinary People Can Accomplish Extraordinary Results, (Jossey Bass: San Francisco, 2000)

Eric Ries, The Lean Startup, (Crown Publishing Group: New York, 2011)

Sir Ken Robinson, Out of Our Minds, Learning to Be Creative (Capstone Publishing: UK, 2011)

Sir Ken Robinson. TED talk: "Bring on the Learning Revolution!,"

Jeffrey Sachs, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2010

Jeffrey Sachs, 2010 Citicorps Lecture, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan

Jean Baptiste Say, A Treatise on Political Economy, (1821)

Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, (Harper & Brothers: New York and London, 1947)

Carl Schramm, "All Entrepreneurship is Social," Stanford Social Innovation Review, March 10, 2010

John Seely Brown (editor and introduction), Seeing differently: insights on innovation, (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, c1997)

Jeffrey J. Selingo, College (Un)bound, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing: New York, 2013)

Daniel J. Siegel, Brainstorm: The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain (Penguin Group: New York, 2013)

Martin E. P. Seligman, Flourish, A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being, (Free Press, Simon & Schuster: New York, 2011)

S. Shane et al., “Entrepreneurial Motivation,” Human Resource Management Review 13 (2003) 257–279 269

Clayton Shirky, Cognitive Surplus: How Technology Makes Consumers into Collaborators, (Penguin Books: New York, 2010) 

Daniel J. Siegel, M.D., Brainstorm, The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain, (Penguin Group, USA, 2013)

Peter Sims, Little bets : how breakthrough ideas emerge from small discoveries, (Simon & Schuster: New York, 2011)

"Startup Genome Report 01, A new framework for understanding why startups succeed," May28, 2011,

R. J. Sternberg (ed.), The Nature of Creativity, (Cambridge University Press: New York, 1988).

Robert J. Sternberg, "Wisdom as a Form of Giftedness," Gifted Child Quarterly, Fall 2000, 44:4, 252-260

Robert J. Sternberg, James C. Kaufman, Jean E. Pretz, The creativity conundrum : a propulsion model of kinds of creative contributions, (Psychology Press: New York, 2002)

Robert J. Sternberg, Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized, (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, 2003)

Robert J. Sternberg, "Academic Intelligence is Not Enough!," in Creativity , From Potential to Realization, edited by Robert J. Sternberg, Elena L. Grigorenko, Jerome L. Singer, (American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C., 2004)

Robert J. Sternberg, ed., The anatomy of impact : what makes the great works of psychology great, (American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C., 2003)

Robert J. Sternberg, Linda Jarvin, Elena L. Grigorenko, editors, Teaching for Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized, (Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA, 2009)

Bryan Stevenson, Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption (Random House: New York, 2014)

Thomas A. Stewart, Intellectual Capital (Currency Doubleday: New York, 1997)

Thomas A. Stewart, The Wealth of Knowledge (Currency Books, 2001)

Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, A New Culture of Learning, Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change, (Create Space: Lexington, KY, 2011)

Time Magazine, January 2011, “2010 Person of the Year”

Krista Tippett,, Blog, Dec. 2010

T-Summit 2016, Video: National Town Hall,

University of Michigan Erb Institute video archives, "Is Consumerism Sustainable?" (2007)

Andrew Van de Ven, Douglas Polley, Raghu Garud and Sankaran Venkataraman, The Innovation Journey, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, New York,, 2008)

Roberto Verganti, “User-Centered Innovation is Not Sustainable,” The Conversation, Harvard Business Review,, March 19, 2010

Tony Wagner, Creating Innovators, (Simon & Schuster: New York, 2012)

“Reflecting on Prahalad Reflecting on Drucker,” by Rick Wartzman,, 4/23/10

Michael Walker, “Electric Kool-Aid Marketing Trip,” New York Times, Op-ed Contributor, March 18, 2011

Daniel T. Willingham, Why Don't Students Like School? (Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, 2009)

Paul J. Zak, The Moral Molecule, (Penguin Group: New York, NY, 2012)

Rosamund Stone Zander and Benjamin Zander, The Art of Possibility, (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, MA, 2000)

Claus von Zastrow, "New Designs for Learning: A Conversation with IDEO Founder David Kelley," Report of interview sponsored by Learning First Alliance, January 20, 2010 (

Samuel Zell, video, 2003, Zell-Lurie Institute, University of Michigan