Third Crusade (1189-1192)

Upon hearing of the defeat at the Battle of Hattin, a new call for help was sent. By March 1188, Henry II of England, Richard (Henry's son), Philip II of France, and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I had sworn crusade vows. The French and English contingents were delayed in their departure by mutual suspicion. The Germany army was not delayed, but their progress disintegrated upon the death of Frederick I while crossing the Goksu river in June 1190. Henry II had died before even leaving on crusade, but Richard and Philip arrived in the Holy Land by the summer of 1191. They laid siege to Acre, which surrendered in July of that year. The two then worked out a compromise for who should control Jerusalem between the feuding parties from the dispute after Baldwin V's death.

Philip then returned to the west, leaving behind part of his army. Richard I, however, still tried to reclaim Jerusalem. To prevent delay, Richard killed the prisoners from Acre and went on to seize Arsuf and Jaffa and to refortify Ascalon. However, upon hearing of political turmoil at home, he made a treaty with Saladin (signed on September 2, 1192) and left to return to England on October 9, 1192. In 1193, Saladin died. While both Philip and Richard claimed to want to return, neither did. But in spring 1197, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (son of Frederick I) mounted another campaign. This also ended in a truce on July 1, 1198 after Henry VI's death on September 28, 1197.

To see a summary of the Second Crusade and subsequent events, click here.

To see a summary of the Fourth Crusade and subsequent events, click here.

To see a more detailed list of events during this period, click here.

References: Erbstösser, Hallam [2], Maalouf, Riley-Smith [1]