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Human Embryonic Stem Cells Found?

Researchers have isolated a type of cell that they believe could give rise to all other human cells.


Gearhart, J.D. 1997. Deriving human pluripotent stem cells. International Congress of Developmental Biology. Snowbird, Utah.

Further Readings:

Macer, D., et al. 1991. New creations. Hasting Center Report 21(January/February):32.

Matsui, Y., et al. 1992. Derivation of pluripotential embryonic stem cells from murin primordial germ cells in culture. Cell 70(Sept. 4):841.

Nagy, A., et al. 1993. Derivation of completely cell culture-derived mice from early-passage embryonic stem cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90(September):8424.

Resnick, J.L., et al. 1992. Long-term proliferation of mouse primordial germ cells in culture. Nature 359(Oct. 8):550.

Travis, J. 1995. Monkeying around with stem cells. Science News 148(Aug. 26):139.


Neandertals make big splash in gene pool

Neandertals did not interbreed with the ancestors of modern humans, according to researchers who isolated and analyzed the first sample of Neandertal mitochondrial DNA.


Krings, M. . . .M. Stoneking, S. Paabo. 1997. Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans. Cell 90(July 11):19.

Further Readings:

Bower, B. 1992. Erectus unhinged. Science News 141(June 20):408.

Bower, B. 1991. Neandertals' Disappearing Act. Science News 139(June 8):360.


Exposing chaos in a falling disk's flutters

Disks of different diameter and density falling in different liquids display four distinctive types of behavior: steady fall, periodic oscillation, chaotic motion, and tumbling.


Field, S.B., et al. 1997. Chaotic dynamics of falling disks. Nature 388(July 17):252. (A longer version of the paper is available at .)

Further Readings:

Mahadevan, L. 1996. Tumbling of a falling card. Contes Rendues (Academy of Sciences, Paris) Series 2b 323:729.

Mahadevan, L., H. Aref, and S.W. Jones. 1995. Comment on "Behavior of a falling paper." Physical Review Letters 75(Aug. 14):1420.

Maxwell, J.C. 1853. On a particular case of the descent of a heavy body in a resisting medium. Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal 9:115.

Peterson, I. 1994. Catching the flutter of a falling leaf. Science News 146(Sept. 17):183.

Tanabe Y., and K. Kaneko. 1994. Behavior of a falling paper. Physical Review Letters 73(Sept. 5):1372.


Global warming lurks principally at night

Across much of the globe, nighttime temperatures are rising more than twice as quickly as daytime temperatures.


Easterling, D. R., et al. 1997. Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277(July 18):364.

Further Readings:

Monastersky, R. 1992. Industrial countries warmed most at night. Science News 141(Jan. 4):4.

Rosenzweig, C., and F.N. Tubiello. 1996. Effects of changes in minimum and maximum temperature on wheat yields in the central U.S.: A simulation study. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 80:215.


Squirts for squirts: Flu spray guards kids

A nasal spray vaccine protects healthy children against influenza.


Managed care may be choking clinical research

Medical schools in communities where pressures are highest to cut costs appear to be losing some of their competitive edge in research.


Campbell, E.G., J.S. Weissman, and D. Blumenthal. 1997. Relationship between market competition and the activities and attitudes of medical school faculty. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(July 16):222.

Ernest Moy, et al. 1997. Relationship between National Institutes of Health research awards to U.S. medical schools and managed care market penetration. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(July 16):217.

Shine, K.I. 1997. Some imperatives for clinical research. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(July 16):245.

Further Readings:

Thompson, J.N., and J. Moskowitz. 1997. Preventing the extinction of the clinical research ecosystem. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(July 16):241.

Williams, G.H., D.W. Wara, and P. Carbone. 1997. Funding for patient-oriented research: Critical strain on a fundamental linchpin. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(July 16):227.


Rover spectrometer connects with Yogi

After a 5-day delay, the Mars rover obtained the spectrum of a second rock.

Further Readings:

Cowen, R. 1997. Postcards from the Red Planet. Science News 152(July 12):20.

Each of the following four websites contains the latest images and information about the Mars Pathfinder mission:;;;


Research Notes:


Hepatitis B shots reduce liver cancer

Vaccinating Taiwanese children against hepatitis B cuts liver cancer cases.


Chang, M., et al. 1997. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. New England Journal of Medicine 333(June 26):1855.

Further Readings:

Chang, M., et al. 1989. Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus in childhood hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 64:2377.

Zuckerman, A. 1997. Prevention of primary liver cancer by immunization. New England Journal of Medicine 336(June 26):1906.


Farsighted surgery reaches trial stage

Researchers are testing a laser technique to correct farsightedness.



Element 106 takes seat at the table

The first chemical experiments on the heavy element seaborgium place it in the group that includes chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten.


Schadel, M., et al. 1997. Chemical properties of element 106 (seaborgium). Nature 388(July 3):55.

Further Readings:

1994. Aiming for superheavy elements. Science News 146(Sept. 24):206.

Lipkin, R. 1994. Element 106 takes the name seaborgium. Science News 145(March 19):180.

Peterson, I. 1990. A chemical glance at short-lived elements. Science News 138(Sept. 8):150.


New phosphor for fluorescent bulbs

Silicate mixed with carbon produces a bright, white glow when stimulated by ultraviolet light, making it a potential nontoxic phosphor for fluorescent bulbs.


Green, W.H. . . .M.J. Sailor. 1997. White phosphors from a silicate-carboxylate sol-gel precursor that lack metal activator ions. Science 276(June 20):1826.



Nuclear Medicine Gets Friendlier

Experimental therapies seek to poison just the disease

Injection of different isotopes bound to antibodies reduces the side effects associated with radiation therapy for cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.


Barnes, C.L., S. Shortkroff, and C.B. Sledge. 1992. Radiation synovectomy using dysprosium-165 ferric hydroxide macroaggregates: A review. Rheumatology Review 1:151.

Liu, S. . . .D. Matthews, D. Fisher. 1997. Long-term follow-up of patients with relapsed B cell lymphomas treated with iodine-131 labeled anti-CD20 (B1) antibody and autologous stem cell rescue. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncologists 18:13a.

Matthews, D.C., et al. 1996. I-anti-CD45 antibody plus busulfan/cyclophosphamide in matched related transplants for AML in first remission. Blood 88(Supplement 1):142a.

Siegel, M.E., et al. 1997. Radiosynoviorthesis for chronic hemophilic hemarthrosis and synovitis: Efficacy and cost analysis. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 38(May supplement):120P.

Sledge, C.B. . . .S. Shortkroff. 1986. Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates. Arthritis and Rheumatism 29(February):153.

Tierstein, P.S., V. Massullo, et al. 1997. Catheter-based radiotherapy to inhibit restenosis after coronary stenting. New England Journal of Medicine 336(June 12):1697.

Vriesendorp, H.M., J.D. Morton, and S.M. Quadri. 1995. Review of five consecutive studies of radiolabeled immunoglobulin therapy in Hodgkin's disease. Cancer Research (Supplement) 55:5888s.

Further Readings:

Clunie, G., et al. 1996. Clinical outcome after one year following samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 25:360.

Clunie, G., and P.J. Ell. 1995. A survey of radiation synovectomy in Europe, 1991-1993. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 22(September):970.

Raloff, J. 1997. Unclogging arteries? Radiation helps. Science News 151(June 14):364.

Weinberger, J., H. Amols, et al. 1996. Intracoronary irradiation: Dose response for the prevention of restenosis in swine. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics 36:767.

Wiedermann, J.G. . . .H. Amols. 1994. Intracoronary irradiation markedly reduces restenosis after balloon angioplasty in a porcine model. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 23(May):1491.

Wu, C. 1997. New drugs zap cancer cells with radiation. Science News 151(Feb. 22):117.


Global Graveyard

New images of Earth's interior reveal the fate of old ocean floor

Seismologists use earthquake vibrations to map Earth's internal anatomy.


Allegre, C.J. 1997. Limitation on the mass exchange between the upper and lower mantle: The evolving convection regime of the Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 150(July 24).

Grand, S.P., R. D. van der Hilst, and S. Widiyantoro. 1997. Global seismic tomography: A snapshot of convection in the Earth. GSA Today 7(April):1.

Van der Hilst, R.D., S. Widiyantoro, and E.R. Engdahl. 1997. Evidence for deep mantle circulation from global tomography. Nature 386(April 10):578.

Further Readings:

Masters, G. 1997. Tracking slabs in the lower mantle. Nature 386(April 10):558.

Monastersky, R. 1994. Scrambled Earth. Science News 145(April 9):245.


Table of Contents - 7/19/97

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