The development of survey measures has been a key component of this project.  The scales that we have developed are included in the Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (PALS), which can be downloaded directly from this site. (To download the manual, please click on the title.) If you do not have Adobe Acrobat reader or would like to update your current version, click the Adobe button to download:


     Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, M. J., Nelson, J., Roeser, R., & Urdan, T., (2000). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

For additional information on research use or licensing of the PALS content please complete the licensing agreement: Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) - Agreement

Student scales include personal achievement goal orientations, perception of teacher's goals, perception of classroom goal structure, academic efficacy, academic press, academic self-handicapping, avoiding novelty, cheating behavior, disruptive behavior, self-presentation of low achievement, and skepticism about the relevance of school for future success. Teacher scales include perceptions of the school goal structure, goal-related approaches to instruction, and personal teaching efficacy.


Samples of the surveys are also included as well as a list of selected manusripts using PALS.

We also developed a classroom observation protocol to use in investigating associations between teacher behaviors and practices and their students’ perceptions of the achievement goal structure in their classrooms.  The manual, (Observing Patterns of Adaptive Learning OPAL) is also available for downloading from this site.

Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., Anderman, L. H., Middleton, M., Linnenbrink, L., Hruda, L. Z., Edelin, K., Kaplan, A., & Midgley, C.  (1997).  Manual for Observing Patterns of Adaptive Learning (OPAL):  A Protocol for Classroom Observations.  Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

For questions or suggestions regarding this Website, please contact Roxana Marachi at

Please note: This website is best viewed on a PC with Microsoft Internet Explorer 5

Last Updated February 4th, 2003