310 Coffee Consumption and Periodontal Disease in Men

Thursday, March 22, 2012: 2 p.m. - 3:15 p.m.
Presentation Type: Poster Session
N. NG1, E. KRALL KAYE2, and R. GARCIA2, 1Boston University, Boston, MA, 2School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA
Objectives: Caffeine is a competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterase which raises cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate, activates protein kinase A, inhibits TNF-α synthesis and subsequently reduces inflammation in animal models. The purpose of this study was to determine if coffee intake, a major source of caffeine among older men, is associated with periodontal disease.

Methods: Participants were 394 dentate, non-Hispanic white males in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study who attended 3 oral examinations between 1987 and 1998. Subjects are not VA patients but receive medical and dental care in the private sector. Mean age was 68 years. Probing pocket depth (PPD) was measured by calibrated examiners on each tooth and alveolar bone loss (ABL) was measured on radiographs in increments of 20% with a modified Schei ruler method. Bleeding on probing (BOP) was noted. Indices of moderate-to-severe periodontal disease were defined as cumulative numbers of teeth ever exhibiting PPD≥4mm or ABL ≥40%. Average coffee intake was obtained from food frequency questionnaires and the distribution was divided at the median (≤1 cup/day vs. >1 cup/day). Repeated measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease PD and BOP at each examination by coffee intake level. Covariates were age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, smoking, diabetes status, education, and frequencies of flossing, toothbrushing, periodontal treatment and cleanings.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in moderate-to-severe PPD between the low and high coffee intake groups. However, consumption of >1 cup of coffee/day was associated with fewer teeth overall with moderate-to-severe ABL (p=0.02) compared to ≤1 cup/day. Men who drank >1 cup of coffee/day also had fewer teeth with BOP (p<0.09).

Cumulative #teeth with PPD≥4mm (mean±se)

Cumulative #teeth with ABL ≥40% (mean±se)

Average coffee intake

≤1 cup/day

>1 cup/day

≤1 cup/day

>1 cup/day

Exam 1 (1987-1992)





Exam 2 (1992-1995)





Exam 3 (1993-1998)





  Conclusions: Caffeine, which is found in coffee, may have anti-inflammatory effects and reduce periodontal bone loss in humans.

This abstract is based on research that was funded entirely or partially by an outside source: US Dept. of Veterans Affairs and NIDCR K24 DE00419

Keywords: Aging, Diet, Nutrition and Periodontal disease
See more of: Nutrition Research
See more of: Nutrition