1222 Residual Stresses in Porcelain-Veneered Zirconia Prostheses

Saturday, March 24, 2012: 8 a.m. - 9:30 a.m.
Presentation Type: Oral Session
M. BALDASSARRI1, C. STAPPERT1, M. WOLFF2, V. THOMPSON3, and Y. ZHANG4, 1New York University, New York, NY, 2College of Dentistry, Cariology and Comprehensive Care, New York University, New York, NY, 3Professor and Chairman Department of Biomaterials, New York University College of Dentistry, Executive Management Team PEARL Network, New York, NY, 4Biomaterials & Biomimetics, New York University, New York, NY
Objectives: Compressive stresses are intentionally introduced to porcelain veneer to prevent fracture. However, the excessive veneer chipping in zirconia prostheses suggests that a tensile stress component may exist in the porcelain. Our objective was to determine whether tensile stresses are present in the veneer of zirconia restorations using a Vickers indentation method.

 Methods: Six hand-veneered 3-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) were manufactured using a slow cooling (NobelBiocare, Gothenburg, Sweden). Each FDP was sectioned parallel to the occlusal plane for Vickers indentations (n=143; 9.8 N peak load; 5 s dwell time). Tests were performed in the veneer of porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens (bilayers, n=4) and monolithic porcelain specimens (without core, n=2). Indentations were performed with sharp corners oriented perpendicular (radial) and parallel (transverse) to the veneer/core interface. Residual stresses (σR) were estimated using the following formula: σR= (K1c*(1-((c0/c1)^(3/2))))/(φ*(c1^(1/2))) where ψ (=1.24): crack geometry factor; c0 and c1: indentation crack lengths in unstressed (monolith) and stressed (bilayer) materials, respectively; K1c: fracture toughness of porcelain).

Results: The crack lengths for the bilayers were 67±12 μm (mean±SD) and 52±8 μm in the transverse and radial directions, respectively (p<0.001). The crack lengths in the monolithic porcelain were 64±8 and 64±7 μm in transverse and radial directions, respectively. Compared to unstressed porcelain monoliths, indentation cracks in bilayers were significantly longer (p=0.006) in the transverse but shorter (p=0.001) in the radial directions. The above equation predicts a hoop compressive stress (~40 to 50 MPa) and a radial tensile stress (~10 MPa) in the bulk of porcelain veneers.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the presence of a residual radial tensile stress in the porcelain of veneered zirconia prostheses. We contend that this radial tensile stress is responsible for the large clinical chips and fractures observed in veneered zirconia restorations. 


This abstract is based on research that was funded entirely or partially by an outside source: NIH/NID CR-R01DE017925, NIH/NIAMS-R01AR056208, and NSF/CMMI-0758530

Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Implants and Porcelain systems
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