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Related Research

This page contains selected bibliographies on the following topics for those interested in further reading.  A link to on-line texts is provided whenever possible.

Pelvic Floor Damage during Childbirth
Urinary Incontinence
Kegel Exercises
Perineal Massage
Spontaneous Pushing

Pelvic Floor Damage during Childbirth

Allen RE, Hosker GL, Smith AR & Warrell DW. 1990.  Pelvic floor damage and childbirth:  A neurophysiological study. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 97 (9): 770-779.

Brubaker L. 1998. Vaginal delivery and the pelvic floor. International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 9 (6): 363-364.

Combs CA, Robertson P & Laros R. 1990.  Risk factors for third-degree and fourth-degree perineal lacerations in forceps and vacuum deliveries.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 163 (1): 100-104.

Renfrew MJ, Hannah W, Albers L & Floyd E. 1998. Practices that minimize trauma to the genital tract in childbirth:  A systematic review of the literature. Birth 25 (3): 143-160.

Urinary Incontinence

Chiarelli,P, and Cockburn, J (2002). Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial".British Medical Journal 324(7348):1241.. 

DeLancey JOL. 1996. Stress urinary incontinence:  Where are we now, where should we go.  American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 175 (2): 311-319.

Dimpfl TH, Hesse U & Schussler B. 1992. Incidence and cause of postpartum urinary stress incontinence.  European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 43:29-33.

Diokno AC, Brock BM, Brown MB & Herzog AR. 1986. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and other urological symptoms in the noninstitutionalized elderly. Journal of Urology 136: 1022-1025.

Marshall K, Totterdal D. mcConnel V, Walsh DM & Whelan M. 1996. Urinary incontinence and constipation during pregnancy and after childbirth. Physiotherapy 82 (2): 98-103.

Meyer S, Schreyer A, DeGrandi P & Hohlfeld P. 1998. The effects of birth on urinary continence mechanisms and other pelvic-floor characteristics. Obstetrics & Gynecology 92  (4): 613-618.

Wijma et al (2001). Anatomical and functional changes in the lower urinary tract during pregnancy.Brit Journal. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2001.

Kegel Exercises

Bump RC, Hurt WG, Fantl JA & Wyman JF. 1991.  Assessment of Kegel pelvic muscle exercise performance after brief verbal instruction.  American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 165 (2): 322-327.

Dougherty M, Bishop K, Mooney R, et al. 1993.  Graded pelvic muscle exercise:  Effect on stress urinary incontinence.  Journal of Reproductive Medicine 39 (9): 684-691.

Morkved, S & Bo, K.  2000.  Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training in prevention  and treatment of urinary incontinence:  A one-year follow up.  British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 107 (8): 1022-8.

Sampselle, C.M., & Hines, S. (In Press). Pelvic Floor Exercise.  Invited chaper: McCloskey, J.C. & Bulechek, G.M. (Eds.). Nursing Interventions:  Essential Nursing Treatments.

Sampselle, C.M., Miller, J.M., Mims, B.M., DeLancey, J.O.L., Ashton-Miller, J.A., Antonakos, C.L. (1998).  Pelvic muscle exercise reduces transient incontinence during pregnancy and after birth. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 91, 406-412.

Perineal Massage

Avery MD, Burket BA. 1986.  Effect of perineal massage on the incidence of episiotomy and perineal laceration in a nurse-midwifery service. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 31 (3): 128-134.

Avery MD, Van Arsdale L. 1987. Perineal massage:  Effect on the incidence of episiotomy and laceration in a nulliparous population. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 32 (3): 181-184.

Knapp W. 1982. On massage therapy. In F Kottke, G Stillwell & J Lehmann (eds.) Krusen's Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (3rd ed., pp. 386-388). Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Spontaneous Pushing

Sampselle, Carolyn M. , Hines, Sandra (1999).  Spontaneous pushing during birth. Relationship to perineal outcomes. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. 44(1), 36-39.

Sleep, J., Roberts, J. & Chalmers, I. (1989).  Care during the second stage of labour. In Ian Chalmers, Murray Enkin, & Marc J. N. C.. Keirse (Eds.), Effective Care inPregnancy and Childbirth Volume 2:  Childbirth (pp. 1129-1143) New York:  Oxford University Press.

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