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Classical period of the Ottoman Empire c. 1300-1600
Circumscribing the life and times of Suleyman the Magnificent 1481-1598
Life Span of Suleyman the Magnificent 1494-1566
Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent 1520-1566

Military Campaigns of Suleyman: 
Timeline of Selected Events

1521--Conquest of Belgrade
1522--Fall of Rhodes
1526--Battle of Mohacs
1529--Siege of Vienna
1532--Siege of Guns
1533--Two Iraqs Campaign
1534--Conquest of Baghdad; Battles of Tunis
1535--Battles of Tunis
1537--War with Venice; Siege of Corfu
1538--Naval Battle of Preveza
1540--Peace with Venice
1543--Siege of Nice
1548--Conquest of Van
1554--Campaign in Iran
1556--Hungarian Campaign
1557--Hungarian Campaign
1558--Hungarian Campaign
1559--Hungarian Campaign
1565--Siege of Malta
1566--Siege of Szeged


---1261---The foundation of the gazi principalities of Mentese, Aydin, Saruhan, Karesi, and Osmanli (Ottoman) in western Anatolia (denoted [1], hereafter).

---1269---The Turks of Mentese invade the Byzantine ports in Caria.  [1]
---1301---Osman Gazi's victory at Baphaeon.  [1]
---1304---The Catalans in the service of Byzantium against the Turks; the Turks of Mentese conquer Ephesus.[1]
---1308---The Aydin Turks conquer Pyrigion (Birgi); death of Mesud II, the last Seljuk sultan.  [1]
---1313---The Saruhan Turks conquer Magnesia (Manisa); outbreak of civil war in Byzantium
---1326---The Ottoman conquest of Bursa (6 April); death of Osman Gasi and the accession of Orhan.
---1327---The first Ottoman silver coin (akce) minted in Bursa.
---1331---The Ottoman conquest of Nicaca (Iznik).
---1332---The Bey of Izmir, Umur's first Balkan expedition.
---1333---Orhan's victory over Andronicus III at Pelekanon.
---1335---The fall of the Mongol Empire in Iran.
---1337---The Ottoman conquest of Nicomedia (Izmit).
---1341---Civil war in Byzantium (denoted [2] hereafter)
---1344---The Crusaders capture the fort of Izmir.  [2]
---1345---The Ottomans annex the principality of Karesi. Umur Bey's last expedition to the Balkans. [2]
---1346---Orhan's marriage with Theodora, daughter of John VI Cantacuzenus.  [2]
---1352---Orhan grants capitulations to the Genoese; Orhan's son, Suleyman, in Adrainople; Suleyman occupies Tzympe; beginning of the Ottoman conquests in Thrace.
---1353---War between the Genoese and Venetians (denoted [3] hereafter)
---1354---Ottoman occupation of Ankara and Gallipoli (2 March); John V Palaeologus in Constantinople; abdication of John Cantacuzenus.  [3]
---1355---Death of Stephen Dusan (20 December); dismemberment of the Serbian Empire.  [3]
---1357---Death of Suleyman.  Ottoman-Byzantine peace.
---1359---Prince Murad renews the Ottoman onslaught in Thrace.  Conquest of Tsouroullos (Corlu) and Didymotreichos (Dimetoka).
---1361---Murad conquers Adrianople (Edirne).
---1362---Death of Orhan.  Accession of Murad I.  Uprising against the Ottomans in Anatolia
---1363---Ottoman conquests in southern Bulgaria and Thrace; conquest of Philippopolis (denoted [4] hereafter)
---1364---War between Byzantium and Bulgaria.  [4]
---1366---John v in Buda.  The Pope announces a crusade against the Ottomans.  Amadeo VI of Savoy captures Gallipoli (August).
---1369---John v in Rome.
---1371---Ottoman victory over the Serbian princes Vukasin and Ugljesa at Chermanon (26 September).
---1373---Joint rebellion of Adronicus and the Ottoman Prince, Savel, agains their fathers (spring) and their defeat (September).
---1375---The Ottomans annex parts of the principalities of Germiyan and Hamidili (denoted [5] hereafter)
---1376---Adronicus IV in Constantinople with Ottoman and Genoese support.  Adronicus cedes Gallipoli to the Ottomans.  [5]
---1379---John v Palacologus, with Ottoman, support, again occupies the Byzantine throne.  [5]
---1380---War between the Genoese and the Venetians.  [5]
---1381---War between the Genoese and the Venetians.
---1383---The Ottomans in Serres (19 September)
---1385---Ottoman conquest of Sofia.
---1386---The Ottomans in Nish.  Ottoman intervention in the Amasya region of northern Anatolia.
---1387---Ottoman conquest of Salonica.  Victory over the Karamanids.
---1388---A colaition of the Serbs, Bosnians, and Bulgars.  Defeat of the Ottomans at PLoshnik (27 August).  Ottoman occupation of northern Bulgaria (Autumn). 
---1389---Battle of Kossovo (15 June).  Accession of Bayezid I.  Bayezid's conquests in western Anatolia end the principalities of Mentese, Aydin, Saruhan, Germiyan, and Hamidili.
---1390---Bayezid's conquests in western Anatolia end the principalities of Mentese, Aydin, Saruhan, Germiyan, and Hamidili.
---1391---The Ottomans in Adalia (Antalya) and Alaiyye (Alanya); the Ottomans capture Skopje and raid northern Albania.
---1392---Ottomans in Kastamonu and Amasya.  Retreat before Kadi Burhaneddin, Sultan of Sivas.
---1393---Bayezid returns to the Balkans and annexes Danubian Bulgaria.  He calls all the vassel princes in the Balkans, including the Palaeologi, into his presence in Verria.
---1394---Ottoman blockade of Constantinople (denoted [6] hereafter).  Ottoman conquest of Thessaly.  Raids in the Morea.
---1395---Bayezid's expedition into Hungary and Wallachia.  Battle of Argesh (17 May).  Wallachia becomes an Ottoman vassal state.  Execution of Shishman, King of Bulgaria (3 June).  Alliance of Venice, Hungary, and Byzantium against the Ottomans. [6] 
---1396---Battle of Nicopolis (25 September).  [6] 
---1397---Bayezid returns to Anatolia and annexes Karaman.[6] 
---1398---Conquest of the Bulgarian principality of Vidin and the principality of Kadi Burhaneddin.  [6] 
---1399---Conquest of the Mamluk cities of Malatya and Elbistan in the Euphrates valley.  [6] 
---1400---Manuel II Palaeologus in Europe.  Timur sacks Sivas (10 August).  [6] 
---1401---Bayezid in Erzincan. [6] 
---1402---Battle of Ankara (28 July).  Timur takes Smyrna (Izmir) from the Hospitallers (December).[6] 
---1403---Bayezid commits suicide at Aksehir (8 March).  Timur revives the Anatolian principalities.  Civil war between Bayezid's sons with Suleyman in Edirne, Isa in Bursa and Mehmed in Amasya.  Agreements between Suleyman and Christian states.  Salonica returned to the Byzantines (October).
---1406---War between Mehmed and Suleyman.
---1410---Suleyman defeats Musa in Rumelia (15 June and 11 July).
---1411---Musa defeats Suleyman (February) and besieges Constantinople (summer).
---1412---Agreement between Mehmed and Manuel against Musa (July).
---1413---Mehmed defeats Musa near Sofia (5 July).  Mehmed I unifies Ottoman territories.  The Karamanids besiege Bursa.
---1414---Mehmed I besieges Konya dn reconquers Hamidili.
---1415---Mehmed's expedition to western Anatolia, reconquers Smyrna (Izmir) and other Ionian cities (summer).  Conflict with Venice.
---1416---Mustafa, son of Bayezid I, in Rumelia.  Pietro Lorendano destroys the Ottoman fleet at Gallipoli (29 May).  The revolt of the Seyh Bedreddin (summer) and his execution (18 December).  Mircea invades Silistra and Deliorman (autumn).  Mehmed I invades Candarid territory.
---1417---Mehmed I invades Karaman (autumn), and annexes Kirsehir and Nigde.
---1418---Mehmed I's expedition to Canik.
---1419---Expedition against Mircea.  Capture of Giurgiu.
---1421---Death of Mehmed I.  Murad II in Bursa (May).  Mustafa in control of Rumelia.
---1422---Mustafa retreats from Ulubat and is executed in Edirne (January).  Murad besieges Constantinople (2 June-6 September).  Hi brother Mustafa's rebellion in Anatolia.
---1423---Murad II defeats Mustafa and subdues the Candarids and Karamanids.  Turahan Bey in the Morea (May).  Salonica under Venetian rule; Ottoman-Venetian war (denoted [7] hereafter).
---1424---Peace treaty between the Ottomans and the Byzantines.  [7]
---1425---Ottoman annexation of Izmir and reconquest of Mentese and Teke.[7]
---1427---Death of Stephen Lazarevic of Serbia (19 July).  The Hungarians in Belgrade.  The Ottomans in Golubac.  Sigismund takes Giurgiu.  The Karamanids in Hamidili. [7]
---1428---Peace between the Ottomans and the Hungarians.  [7]
---1429---Shahrukh in Azerbaijan. [7]
---1430---Ottoman conquest of Saloinica (29 March) and of Ioannina.  [7]
---1432---Rebellion in southern Albania.
---1433---Rebellion in southern Albania.
---1434---Ottoman-Hungarian rivalry in Wallachia, Serbia and Bosnia.
---1435---Shahrukh in Anatolia.
---1437---Murad II reconquers Hamidili.  Death of Sigismund.
---1438---Murad II's expedition into Transylvania.
---1439---Murad II's conquest of Semendria.  The end of independent Serbia.  The King of Bosnia tributary to the Ottomans.
---1440---Ottoman failure at the siege of Belgrade.
---1441---John Hunyadi defeats the Ottomans in Transylvania.
---1442---John Hunyadi defeats the Ottomans in Transylvania.
---1443---Hunyadi invades the Balkans.  Battle of Zlatitsa (25 December).  Iskender Beg's rebellion in northern Albania.
---1444---Peace between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Edirne, 12 June).  Revival of Serbia.  Peace between the Ottomans and the Karamanide (Yenisehir, August).  Abdication of Murad II in favour of his son, Mehmed II.  Battle of Varna (10 November).
---1446---Murad II's second accession to the throne.
---1448---Murad II's expedition against Iskender Beg.  Battle of Kossovo (17-19 October).
---1449---Expeidition into Wallachia.  Reconquest of Giurgiu.
---1450---Murad II's second campaign against Iskender Beg.
---1451---Death of Murad II (3 February); accession of Mehmed II (18 February).  Mehmed II's expedition against the Karamanids (May-June).  Renewal of peace with Venice (10 September) and Hungary (20 November).
---1452---Erection of Rumeli Hisari, the fortress over-looking the Bosphorus (January-August).  Declaration of war against Byzantium.
---1453---Siege of Constantinople (April 6-May 29).  Fall of Pera.
---1454---Peace with Venice (18 April).  Mehmed II's expedition to Serbia.  The Ottoman fleet on the Black Sea.  The Genoese colonies around the Black Sea tributary to the Ottomans.
---1455---Moldavia tributary to the Ottomans (5 October).  Mehmed II's second expedition to Serbia.
---1456---Ottoman failure at the siege of Belgrade.  The empire of Trebizond tributary to the Ottomans. 
---1457---Iskender Beg's victory at Albulena
---1458---Mahmud Pasha's expedition against Serbia. Mehmed II in the Morea.
---1459---Surrender of Semendria (June).  Conquest of Amastris (Amasra).  Pius II declares a crusade.
---1460---Conquest of the Morea.
---1461---Conquest of the Candarid principality and the empire of Trebizond.
---1462---Mehmed II invades Wallachia (summer).  Mahmud Pasha in Lesbos (September).
---1463---War with Venice.  Venetians in control of the Morea.  Mehmed II invades Bosnia.  King of Hungary in Yaitse (16 December).
---1464---Ottoman reconquest of the Morea (spring).  Mehmed II besieges Yaitse.  Death of Pius II (15 August).  Death of Ibrahim the Karamanid.  Civil war in Karaman.
---1466---Mehmed II's campaign against Iskender Beg.  Erection of the castle of Elbasan.
---1467---Mehmed II's second campaign against Iskender Beg.  Shehsuvar of Dulkadir under Ottoman protection.
---1468---Death of Iskender Beg (17 January).  Mehmed II's conquest of Karaman (summer).  Resistance of the Turcoman tribes in the Taurus mountains.
---1469---Venetian attack on Enos and New Phocaea.  Pacification of the Karaman (denoted [8] hereafter).
---1470---Mehmed II's conquest of Euboea (11 July).  [8]
---1471---Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu, Venice, the King of Cyprus, the Knights of St. John and the Emir of Alaiyye (Alanya) form a coalition against the Ottomans.  [8]
---1472---Uzun Hasan sacks Tokat.  An Akkoyunlu-Karamanid army invades Karaman.  The Mamluks execute Shehsuvar.  [8]
---1473---Battle of Baskent (Otluk-beli) (11 August).  [8]
---1474---Ottoman raids into Transylvania.  Siege of Scutari in Albania.  [8]
---1475---Conquest of the GEnoese colonies in the Crimea.  Ottoman suzerainty over the khanate of the Crimea.
---1476---Matthias Corvinus takes Shabats (15 February).  Mehmed II's campaign against Moldavia (summer) and his expedition against Corvinus (winter).
---1477---Beylerbeyi Suleyman besieges Lepanto.  Ottoman raiders before Venice.
---1478---Death of Uzun Hasan (6 January).  Mehmed II besieges Scutari in Albania.  Surrender of Croia in Albania (6 June).  Ottoman raid into Friuli.
---1479---Peace with Venice (25 January).  Ottoman raids into Transylvania and Hungary.  Conquest of Anapa, Kopa, and Tamatarkhan.
---1480---Mesih Pasha's siege of Rhodes.  Ahmed Pasha in Otranto.
---1481---Death of Mehmed II (3 May).  Accession of Bayezid II (20 May).  Battle of Yenisehir between Bayezid and Cem (20 June).  Surrender of the Ottoman forces in Otranto (11 September).
---1482---Cem and Kasim the Karamanid in Anatolia.  Cem's flight to Rhodes (26 July).  Agreement on Cem between the Knights of St. John and Bayezid 11 (September).  Execution of Gedik Ahmed Pasha (November).
---1484---Bayezid II's campaign against Moldavia.  Annexation of Kilia and Akkerman.  War with the Mamluks of Egypt (denoted [9] hereafter).
---1495---Death of Cem (25 February).
---1496---The Ottomans in Montenegro.  Albert of Poland's invasions of Moldavia.  Polish-Hungarian alliance. 
---1497---War with Poland.
---1498---War with Poland.
---1499---War with Poland.  War with Venice.  Ottoman naval victory at Navarino (12 August).  Conquest of Lepanto.
---1500---War with Venice.  Hungary declares war on the Ottomans.  Shah Ismail in power in Iran.  Revolt of the Karamanid tribes in the Taurus Mountains.
---1501---War with Venice.
---1502---War with Venice.
---1503---War with Venice.  Peace treaty with Venice (10 August).
---1504---Shah Ismail in Baghdad.
---1507---Ismail's march through Ottoman territory against Dulkadir.
---1511---Insurrection in north-east Anatolia.  Death of Bayezid II (26 May).
---1512---Selim I defeats and executes his brothers and suppresses the partisans of Shah Ismail in Anatolia.
---1513---Selim I defeats and executes his brothers and suppresses the partisans of Shah Ismail in Anatolia.
---1514---Selim defeats Shah Ismail at Caldiran (23 August).
---1515---Mutiny of the Janissaries (February).  Capture of Kemah (19 May).  Conquest of the principality of Dulkadir (June).
---1516---Conquest of Diyarbekir (April).  Submission of eastern Anatolia to the Ottomans.  Selim defeats the Mamluks at Marj Dabik (24 August).  Selim in Aleppo.
---1517---Battle of Reydaniyya (22 January).  Tuman Bay's resistance in Cairo.  Submission of the Sherif of Mecca (17 July).
---1520---Death of Selim I (21 September).  Accession of Suleyman I (30 September). 
---1521---Conquest of Belgrade (29 August).  Defeat and execution of Janbardi Ghazali in Syria (February).
---1522---End of the Dulkadir dynasty.  Conquest of Rhodes (January 21).
---1523---Ibrahim becomes grand vizier.
---1524---Revolt of Ahmed Pasha in Egypt (January).
---1525---Ibrahim in Egypt (24 March-14 June).
---1526---Battle of Mohacs (29 August).  Suleyman I in Buda (10 September).  John Zapolya becomes King of Hungary (10 November).
---1527---Ferdinand of Austria in Buda.
---1529---Suleyman I captures Buda (8 September).  Zapolya crowned in Buda (14 September).  Suleyman I besieges Vienna (26 September - 16 October).
---1531---The Austrians besiege Buda (Decmeber).
---1532---Suleyman I's campaign against Austria.  Capture of Guns (28 August).  Andrea Doria captures Coron (8 August).
---1533---Peace with Ferdinand (22 June).  Hayreddin Barbarossa becomes grand admiral.  Barbarossa's conquest of Tunis (August).  REconquest of Coron (12 September).  War with Iran (August).
---1534---Conquest of Tabriz (13 July).  Allegiance of the Sultan of Gilan.  Suleyman I in Baghdad.
---1535---Suleyman I returns to Tabriz (spring).  Charles V in Tunis (21 July).
---1536---Suleyman I returns to Istanbul (8 January).  Execution of Ibrahim (5 March).
---1537---War with Venice.  Suleyman I in Albania.  Ottoman raid into Apulia (July).  Siege of Corfu (25 August).  Suleyman I returns to Istanful (1 October).
---1538---Suleyman I in Moldavia (summer).  Annexation of Southern Moldavia (4 October).  Suleyman Pasha of Egypt before Diu (4 September).  Naval Battle of Preveza (29 September).
---1539---Conquest of Castelnuovo (10 August)
---1540---Peace with Venice (2 October).  Surrender of Monemvasia and Napoli di Romagna.  Death of Zapolya.  The Austrians besiege Buda.
---1541---Suleyman I's campaign against Ferdinand.  Suleyman I in Buda (2 September).  Annexation of Hungary.  Charles V before Algiers (20 October).
---1543---The Franco-Ottoman fleet takes Nice (20 August).  Suleyman I in Hungary.  Conquest of Valpovo, Pecs, Siklos, and Gran.
---1544---Conquest of Vishegrad.
---1545---Armistice between Suleyman I and Ferdinand.
---1547---Peace treaty between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs, including the Pope, Venice and the King of France (1 August).
---1548---Suleyman I's campaign against Iran.  Conquest of Van (25 August).
---1549---Conquests in Georgia.  Suleyman I returns to Istanbul (12 December).
---1551---The Ottomans in Transylvania.  Conquest of Becskerek, Varad, Csanad, and Lippa.  Turgud reis (Dragut) captures Tripoli (14 August).
---1552---Conquest of Temesvar (July) and other cities in Ranat.  Ottoman failure agains the Portuguese at Hormuz.  Russian occupation of Kazan.  Ottoman failure are Erlau (October).
---1553---War with Iran.  Suleman I in Eregli (Karaman).  Execution of his son, Mustafa.
---1554---Suleyman I's campaign in Iran.  Conquet of Nakhchevan and Erivan (summer).  Russian occupation of Astrakhan.
---1555---Peace with Iran at Amasya (29 May).
---1556---Inauguration of the Suleymaniye mosque (16 August).  Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.
---1557---Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.
---1558---Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.
---1559---Continued warfare against the Austrians in Hungary.  Civil war between Suleyman I's sons, Selim and Bayezid (May).  Bayezid takes refuge in Iran (November).
---1560---The Spaniards on Djerba.  The grand admiral, Piyale Pasha, captures Djerba (31 July).
---1561---Execution of Prince Bayezid (25 September).  The Cossacks attack Axov.
---1562---Peace with the Emperor Ferdinand (1 July).
---1565---Siege of Malta (20 May-11 September).
---1566---Siege of Szigetvar (5 August - 7 September).  Suleyman I's death before Szigetvar (6 September).  Accession of Selim II (24 September).  Occupation of Chios.
---1567---Revolt of the Zaidite, Mutahhar, in Yemen.
---1568---Peace with the emperor (17 February).
---1569---Ottoman expedition against the Russians.  Don-Volga canal project and the siege of  Astrakhan (September).
---1570---Peace negotiations with the tsar.  Uluc Ali captures Tunis (January).  Expedition to Cyprus.  Conquest of Nicosia.
---1571---Formation of Holy League against the Ottomans (20 May).  Ottoman conquest of Famagusta (1 August).  Battle of Lepanto (7 Ocotber). Chesterton poem.
---1572---Devlet Giray invades Muscovy.  The Ottomans support Henry of Valois' accession to the Polish throne.  Don John of Austria captures Tunis (October).
---1573---Peace treaty with Venice (7 March).  Renewal of Peace with the emperor (3 October).
---1574---Sinan Pasha reconquers Tunis (24 August).  Death of Selim II (12 Decmeber).
---1577---Renewal of peace with the emperor (1 January). 
---1578---Assassination of the grand vizier, Sokollu Mehmed.  War with Iran (spring).  Lala Mustafa's victory at Cildir (10 August).  Annexation of Georgia.  Shirvan and Darband (Derbent).  Battle of Alcazar in Morocco (4 August).
---1579---Persian counterattack.
---1582---Ottoman defeat on the Kur river.
---1583---Osman Pasha's victory at Besh-Tepe (6 June).
---1585---Osman Pasha captures Tabriz (September)
---1587---Abbas the Great declared Shah of Iran.
---1588---Ottoman conquest of Karabagh.
---1589---Janissary revolt in Istanbul (3 April).
---1590---Peace with Iran (21 March). Renewal of peace with the emperor (29 November).
---1591---Further Janissary uprisings and changes in the government.
---1592---Further Janissary uprisings and changes in the government.
---1593---Rebellion of the sipahis in Istanbul (27 January).  Sinan Pasha becomes grand vizier.  Ottoman defeat at Sisak (20 June).  War with Austria (autumn).  Sinan in Hungary.  Capture of Veszprem (13 October).
---1594---Sinan captures Raab.  REbellion of Michael, voivoda of Wallachia.
---1595---Anti-Ottoman alliance between the Habsburgs, Wallachia, Moldavia and the Prince of Transylvania (January).  Death of Murad III (16 January).  Accession of Mehmed III (27 January).  Sinan in Wallachia (August).  Sinan retreats (October).  Austrians in Stuhlweissenburg and Vishegrad (8 September).  Michael of Wallachia in the Dobrudja.
---1596---Mehmed III's campaign in Hungary.  Capture of Erlau (23 September).  Battle of Mezokeresztes (26 October).  Celali disorders in Anatolia.
---1598---Austrians recapture Raab (29 March) and Veszprem and besiege Buda.  Michael attacks Nicopolis.
---1599---Peace negotiations with Austria.  Karayazici besieged in Urfa (July).  Michael in Transylvanis.
---1600---Ottoman conquest of Kanisza (September).
---1601---Death of Michael (19 August).  Archduke Ferdinand defeated before Kanisza (18 November).
---1602---Archduke Matthias besieges Buda (autumn).
---1603---Revolt of the sipahis (January).  Shah Abbas reconquers Tabriz (21 October).  Death of Mehmed II (22 Decmeber).  Accession of Ahmed I (23 December).
---1604---Shah Abbas conquers Erivan, Shirban, and Kars.  Archduke Matthias besieges Buda.
---1605---The Ottomans declare Bocskai King of Hungary.  Ottoman conquest of Gran.
---1606---Peace treaty between the Ottomans and Austrians at Zsitva-Torok.

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