NOTE: The Urban Planning Program has not offered this course in recent years. Below is the syllabus for the last time I taught the course (in 2017). Please look at URP 584 (Introduction to Economic Development Planning), offered in the winter semester.



Urban & Regional Planning 585
(formerly UP 539 under the old course numbering system)
Methods of Economic Development Planning

College of Architecture + Urban Planning
University Of Michigan, Fall 2017
Tu & Th 4:00 - 5:30 pm (2222 A&AB)

course overview
terms / concepts
data sources

online readings (UM authenticate):
Canvas (articles)
Ebooks (an extensive set of books through UM Library)

Prof. Scott Campbell
office:  2352 A&AB
(734) 763-2077
office hours sign-up (via google calendar)

class listserv (only class members can send and receive messages): TBA
modified: Saturday, April 17, 2021


quick links
Sep 5 - 7
Sep 12 - 19
Sep 21 - Oct 3
Oct 5 - Nov 2
Nov 7- 21
Nov 28 - Dec 5
Dec 7 - 12
Assignment   One (Sep 28) Two (Oct 3) Three (Nov 2) Four (Nov 21)  

Five (Dec 7)

Six (Dec 19)


The semester consists of seven sections: each one is built around a theme (overview, data, places, sectors, labor, programs, conclusions). Most sections conclude with a session where students present their assignment results and discuss strategies and methods used to understand local and regional economies.

SYLLABUSreadings available via Canvas (except where noted)

History, Concepts and Politics of Local & Regional Economic Development

Sep 5: Course Introduction

[introductions of instructor and students; format and themes of course; short lecture on flexible economic development planning; introduction of Assignments and picking groups and case studies]


Sep 7: Key Concepts

Crane, R., and M. Manville (2008): People or Place? Revisiting the Who Versus the Where of Urban Development," Lincoln Land Lines, 20(2), 1-6.

Flammang, R. A. 1979. “Economic growth and economic development: Counterparts or competitors?” Economic Development and Cultural Change 28, 47-62

Fitzgerald, Joan and Nancey Green Leigh. 2002. “Introduction” and “Redefining the Field of Local Economic Development.” In Economic Revitalization: Cases and Strategies for City and Suburb. London: Sage Publications.

Barca, F., P. McCann, and A. Rodriguez-Pose (2012): The Case for Regional Development Intervention: Place-based versus Place-neutral Approaches.," Journal of Regional Science, 52(1), 134-152.

see also:

Glaeser, E. L. (1996): Why Economists Still Like Cities," City Journal, 6(2), 70-77.

Glaeser, E.L. (2005), Should the Government Rebuild New Orleans, Or Just Give Residents Checks? The Economist's Voice, Vol 2(4).

Mier, Robert. Metaphors of Economic Development, in Bingham, Richard D., and Robert Mier, eds. 1993. Theories of Local Economic Development. Newbury Park: Sage. (Chapter 14, pp. 284-304).

Wolman, Harold, and David Spitzley. "The Politics of Local Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1996, pp. 115-150.

Brooks, Nancy. Teaching Urban Economics to Planners and the Role of Urban Planning to Economists. in Nancy Brooks, Kieran Donaghy, and Gerrit-Jan Knaap, 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning." Oxford Handbooks Online. [accessible through UM Library online]


Finding Useful And interesting Data on Local and regional Economies (Sources, Units of Analysis, Variables, Implications)

Sep 12: Where are the Numbers? Finding Economic Data at the Local and Regional Levels

Please explore these various sources for data on cities and regions. Looking ahead to Assignments 1-3 and think about what data sources and variables will help you for each assignment. As you explore, think about the differences based on:

1.  source of data:  government, non-profit, private
2.  focus of data:  labor, demographic, business, etc.
3.  unit of analysis:  individual, hhd, family, firm, geography (e.g., city), organization (e.g., non-profit), etc.
4. geography of data:  e.g., is the data organized by geography?  (e.g., a list of the 100 largest cities; unemployment by state, etc.)   does the data have a geo-code?  (e.g., an address for a firm?)
5.  access to data:  is it free?  Or for a fee?  (And does UM have a subscription?)
6. frequency of data: is it annual? every 10 years (the decennial census); every five years (the Economic Census), etc.

see also:
Cities Alliance: Understanding Your Local Economy: A Resource Guide For Cities

Telling Stories with Numbers (a brief talk given to the Agora Journal)


Sep 14: Can you find the data and can you trust the numbers? (a data scavenger hunt) (first part of class); Introduction to Strategies to Read and Critique Economic Impact Studies (second part of class)

First 30 minutes of class discussion of "Data Scavenger Hunt" answers -- see the class google folder (or the emailed instructions) for the link.

remainder of class: Introducing Strategies to Read and Critique Economic Impact Studies

please read these two economic impact studies. (We will collectively discuss and critique the studies to get ideas about how to do Assignment One.


Sep 19: Searching for local and regional economic data: Resources and Help on Campus

Guest: Nicole Scholtz, Spatial and Numeric Data Librarian




Sep 21: Location, Distance, Density: Understanding Location & Relocation Decisions among Firms

Krugman, Paul. "Localization," in Geography and Trade. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1991, pp. 35-67.

Rice, P. (2011): Economic Rationale for Spatial Policies or `Why Place Matters'," Discussion paper, Regeneration and Economic Development Analysis Expert Panel, Department for Communities and Local Government.

Rae, Douglas W. 2003. City : Urbanism and Its End. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. [Ebooks] [preface and chapters 1-4]

see also:
Porter, Michael. "New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 11-27.
Harrison, Bennett and Amy K. Glasmeier "Response: Why Business Alone Won't Redevelop the Inner City: A Friendly Critique of Michael Porter's Approach to Urban Revitalization." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 28-38.
Blair, John P., and Michael C. Carroll. 2007. Inner-city neighborhoods and metropolitan development. Economic Development Quarterly 21 (3):263-277.
Sen, Amartya Kumar. 1999. Development as freedom. 1st. ed. New York: Knopf. (Ch. 2).
Ong, Paul, and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, eds. 2006. Jobs and Economic Development in Minority Communities. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Temple University Press. [Ebooks]
Orum, Anthony and Joe Feagin. “A Tale of Two Cases” in Feagin et. al., eds. A Case for the Case Study (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991) Ch.3.
Putnam, Robert D. "The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life." The American Prospect, Vol. 4, No. 13, March 21, 1993, pp. 35-42.
Galster, George. 2012. Metropolitan Portraits : Driving Detroit : The Quest for Respect in the Motor City. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press. [Ebooks] [chapter 9]
Zimbalist, Andrew. 2010. Circling the Bases : Essays on the Challenges and Prospects of the Sports Industry. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Temple University Press. [Ebooks] [chapters 6 and 7]

for background on location theory, see also:

Porter, Michael. 2000. Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy. Economic Development Quarterly Vol. 14 No. 1, February, 15-34.
Alonso, William. "Location Theory," in Regional Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1975, pp. 35-63.
The Four Classical Traditions in Location Theory"On Location" (Prof. Krumme's great site at the U. of Washington)
Individual Location Decisions (Ch 2), from Edgar M. Hoover and Frank Giarratani, An Introduction to Regional Economics (on-line edition)


Sep 26: Visualizing Data, Visualizing Local Economies

Task: Before class, each student is to find TWO examples of data visualization: one example of a good use of visualization, and one example of a bad use of visualization. Format: a table, chart or thematic map. Please upload your two examples to this google slides file [link].

The goal of this session is to encourage you to be a more careful, thoughtful and critical producer and viewer of data graphics. This includes:

  • understanding the wide range of formats and strategies to visually display quantitative information
  • strategically deciding what formats work best with the data you have (and the questions you are asking)
  • learning the basics of good and bad data presentation (titles, labeling, units, conversions, etc.)
  • thinking about the trade-offs of too much (or too little) data on one graphic (and when to break into separate graphics (such as "small multiples")

Tufte, Edward R.. 1983. The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press. (pp. 13-51) [if you read one thing, read this.]
Yuk, Mico, and Stephanie Diamond. Data Visualization For Dummies, Wiley, 2011. [what to read: review the various sections of the book, and read Ch. 4, "Using Charts Effectively," [Ebooks]
Tarek Azzam and Stephanie Evergreen. Data Visualization : Part 1, New Directions for Evaluation, Number 139, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013. (read "History and Current Trends in Data Visualization"). [Ebooks]
also read chapters that interest you in: Wainer, Howard. Graphic Discovery : A Trout in the Milk and Other Visual Adventures, Princeton University Press, 2005 [Ebooks link]

also: here is an example of a data table with many design problems -- and suggested fixes.

Other resources:

David McCandless, The beauty of data visualization, TED Talk, July 2010. [video link] here is a link to other TED talks on visualization. and yet another list.
UM School of Information: Visualization
University of Michigan 3D Lab: Visualization
UM Library: Research Guides: Health Statistics: Visualizations
UM Library: Data VisualizationData Visualization Spaces
UC Berkeley: Advanced Media Institute: Tutorial: Data Visualization: Basics
Duke University Libraries: Data Visualization
[please email with other suggestions: there are many out there!]


Sep 28 Student Presentations: Critiquing Methods and Claims found in Economic Development Studies

Presentations of Assignment One



Oct 3: Student Presentations

Assignment 2: Place Analysis


SECTORS: Approaching Economic Development through INDUSTRIES (as a unit of analysis and policy)

Oct 5: Introduction to Sectoral Analysis + Data Sources

Chinitz, Benjamin. "Contrasts in Agglomeration: New York and Pittsburgh," in Readings in Urban Economics, edited by Matthew Edel and Jerome Rothenberg. New York: Macmillan Company, 1972, pp. 90-104.

Markusen, Ann. 1994. Studying Regions by Studying Firms. The Professional Geographer 46 (4):477-490.

Sayer, Andrew and Kevin Morgan "A modern industry in a declining region: links between method, theory and policy" in The Politics of Method (London: Methuen, 1984) Ch 6

-> familiarize yourself with the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). see this US Census overview, a useful FAQ and a set of issue papers. see also the Economic Census.

here is an overview of US census data and geography (via my UP504 course page)

see also:
Blakely, Edward James, and Nancey Green Leigh. 2010. Planning local economic development: theory and practice. 4th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. [Chapter 6] [text to be added]

Alonso, William. "Location Theory," in Regional Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1975, pp. 35-63.

Nelson, Arthur C. et. al. “Exurban Industrialization: Implications for Economic Development Policy” Economic Development Quarterly 9, 2 (May 1995)

Carlson, Virginia L. "Identifying Neighborhood Businesses: a Comparison of Business Listings." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1, February 1995, pp. 50-59.

Edgar M. Hoover and Frank Giarratani, An Introduction to Regional Economics (on-line edition)

Cortright, Joseph and Andrew Reamer. 1999. Socioeconomic Data for Understanding Your Regional Economy: A User's Guide. see, e.g., Data sources; Statistics for analyzing your economy; and Seven pitfalls of data analysis. (Chapters 2, 3, 8). [link]


Oct 10: Economic Base, Multipliers, Location Quotients

Tiebout, Charles M. "Exports and Regional Economic Growth." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 64, No. 2, April 1956, pp. 160-164.

North, Douglass C. "Location Theory and Regional Economic Growth." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 63, No. 3, June 1955, pp. 243-258.

Davis, H. Craig “Economic Base Analysis” Regional Impact Analysis and Project Evaluation, Chapter 2 (also in Ebooks)

Isserman, Andrew M. 2000. Economic base studies for urban and regional planning. Pp. 174-193 In Rodwin and Sanyal, eds. The Profession of City Planning: Changes, Images, and Challenges, 1950-2000. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

Stevens, Benjamin and Lahr, Michael. 1988. “Regional Economic Multipliers: Definition, Measurement, and Application.” EDQ 2,1: 88-96.

see also:
Edward M. Bergman and Edward J. Feser, Industrial and Regional Clusters: Concepts and Comparative Applications: (section on Location Quotients)
William A. Schaffer, Regional Impact Models. see Chapter 2: Regional Models of Income Determination: Simple Economic-Base Theory (on multipliers and location quotients)

Dinc, Mustafa. 2015. Introduction to Regional Economic Development : Major Theories and Basic Analytical Tools. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire: Edward Elgar Publishing. (see Chapter 7: "Traditional regional economic development theories" [Ebooks]

also: here is an Excel file with several useful techniques (including multipliers, LQ, etc.)


Oct 12: NO CLASS

[ACSP Conference -- no class today -- a good day for your group to begin work on Assignment 2!]

Oct 17: NO CLASS

UM study break

Oct 19: Shift-Share and the Analysis of Industrial Mix

Edgar M. Hoover and Frank Giarratani, An Introduction to Regional Economics [a classic text, updated]. see Appendix 12-1 The Shift-Share Analysis of Components of Regional Activity Growth. (The Web Book of Regional Science, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University).

Using Employment Data to Better Understand Your Local Economy: Tool 4. Shift-Share Analysis Helps Identify Local Growth Engines (College of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension, Penn State)

see also:
Günter Krumme's useful web site on shift-share analysis [site currently not accessible...]
Loveridge, Scott. "A Practical Approach to Shift-Share Analysis" Journal of Community Development Society (26, 1) 1995, pp. 111-124
Community Economic Toolbox (MIT) [see section on shift-share]
Scranton, Philip "Beyond Anecdotes and Aggregates: The Pattern of Industrial Decline in Philadelphia Textiles, 1916-1931" Antipode 18: 3 (1986)
Kingsley E. Haynes, Mustafa Dinc, Productivity change in manufacturing regions: a multifactor/shift-share approach. Growth and Change, Spring 1997 v28 n2 p201-221.
Banasick, Shawn and Hanham, Robert (2008), Regional Decline of Manufacturing Employment in Japan during an
Era of Prolonged Stagnation, Regional Studies,42:4,489-503.
Artige, Lionel, and Leif van Neuss. 2014. "A New Shift-Share Method." Growth and Change 45 (4):667-683.
Barff, Richard and Prentice L. Knight III. "Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis" Growth and Change. April 1, 1988
Dinc, Mustafa. 2015. Introduction to Regional Economic Development : Major Theories and Basic Analytical Tools. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire: Edward Elgar Publishing. (see Chapter 7: "Traditional regional economic development theories" [Ebooks]
Karlsson, C., Andersson, M., and Norman, T., eds. 2015. Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. (see Ch. 4: "Shift-­ share and its new extensions") [Ebooks]

data sources include:

not yet posted:

[add link]
Hewings, Geoffrey J.D. Regional Input-Output Analysis (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1985) pp. 1-66


Oct 24: Everyone Talks about High Tech but what is it? Measuring High Technology, Innovation, Info-Tech, Research & Development (R&D)

Karen Chapple, Ann Markusen, Greg Schrock, Daisaku Yamamoto and Pingkang Yu, 2004, Gauging Metropolitan "High-Tech" and "I-Tech" Activity, Economic Development Quarterly 18 (1): 10-29.

Daniel E. Hecker, 2005. High-technology employment: a NAICS-based update. Monthly Labor Review (July): 57-72. [link]


National Science Foundation: National Science Board’s Science and Engineering Indicators 2016 •  Definitions of Research and Development: An Annotated Compilation of Official Sources [note: review these various pages to get a sense of definitions and central topics]
see also: Technical Note: Defining High-Technology Industries

additional readings (for further interest):
Harm-Jan Steenhuis and Erik J. de Bruijn. 2006. High technology revisited: definition and position. IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology. [link]

Saxenian, AnnaLee. The Limits of Autarky: Regional Networks and Industrial Adaptation in Silicon Valley and Route 128. (Prepared for HUD Roundtable on Regionalism sponsored by the Social Science Research Council, Dec 8-9, 1994.) html

Saxenian, AnnaLee. Creating a Twentieth Century Technical Community: Frederick Terman‘s Silicon Valley. Paper prepared for inaugural symposium on The Inventor and the Innovative Society, The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution: November 10-11, 1995. html

Havlick, David and Scott Kirsch. A Production Utopia? RTP and the North Carolina Research Triangle Southeastern Geographer; Nov 2004; 44 (2): 263-277.

NSF. 2014. U.S. Knowledge-Intensive Services Industries Employ 18 Million and Pay High Wages. NSF 15-300 | October. [link]

National Science Foundation. Science and Engineering Indicators 2014 Digest • Research and Development (R&D) Definitions

Patrick Kilcoyne. 2001. High-Tech Occupations by Metropolitan Statistical Area. US Bureau of Labor Statistics. [link]

web resources:
Silicon Valley History and Internet History
Chronology of the Personal computer (from Fire in the Valley)
Jeff Goodell, "The Venture Capitalist in My Bedroom" New York Times (San Jose Mercury News)
Joint Venture:  Silicon Valley Network
City of San Jose, Office of Economic Development
Business Week:  "It Must be something in the water: Many regions have tried to duplicate the Valley magic. None has succeeded"  (8/25/97)
Stanford Alumni Magazine: the rise of Hewlitt-Packard; Terman's push for more govt funding at Stanford;
Siliconia (a web page devoted to all the Silicon Valley spin-offs around the world)


Oct 26: Cluster Analysis: why does economic activity come together and what are the direct and indirect benefits?

Doeringer, Peter B., and David G. Terkla "Business Strategy and Cross-Industry Clusters." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1995, pp. 225-237.

Held, James R. "Clusters as an Economic Development Tool: Beyond the Pitfalls." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 3, August 1996, pp. 249-261.

Feser, Edward J. and Michael I. Luger "Cluster Analysis as a Mode of Inquiry: Its Use in Science and Technology Policymaking in North Carolina." European Planning Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 11-24.

see also:

Feser, Edward, Henry Renski and Harvey Goldstein. 2008. Clusters and Economic Development Outcomes: An Analysis of the Link Between Clustering and Industry Growth. Economic Development Quarterly 22 (4): 324-344.

Nolan, Christine, Ed Morrison, Indraneel Kumar, Hamilton Galloway and Sam Cordes. 2011. Linking Industry and Occupation Clusters in Regional Economic Development, Economic Development Quarterly 25(1) 26–35.

Morfessis, Ioanna. "A Cluster Analytic Approach to Identifying and Developing State Target Industries: The Case of Arizona". Economic Development Review. Spring 1994.

E. Bergman and E. Feser. Industrial and Regional Clusters, chapters 3-4

Karlsson, C., Andersson, M., and Norman, T., eds. 2015. Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. (see Ch. 6 " Analysis of spatial concentration and dispersion" and Ch. 14 "Geographic clustering in evolutionary economic geography") [Ebooks]


Oct 31: Input-Output Analysis: Understanding the interdependent linkages within the economy

Miller, Ronald E., and Peter D. Blair. 2009. Input-output analysis : foundations and extensions. 2nd ed. Cambridge [England] ; New York: Cambridge University Press. [link] (Introduction)

Raa, Thjs ten. 2009. Input-Output Economics : Theory and Applications : Featuring Asian Economies. Singapore, SGP: World Scientific Publishing Co. [Ebooks] (read the Introduction and Ch. 1 -- and feel free to read other sections as interested)

Davis, H. Craig. 1990. Regional Economic Impact Analysis and Project Evaluation. Vancouver, CA: UBC Press. [Ebooks] (Ch. 4: Input-Output Analysis.)

see also:

"The Economics of Wassily Leontief: Input-Output Analysis" (excellent 6 minute video of Prof. David Harvey explaining I/O).
Polenske, Karen R. 2004. "Leontief's "magnificent machine" and other contributions to applied economics." In Wassily Leontief and Input-Output Economics, edited by Erik Dietzenbacher and Michael L. Lahr. West Nyack, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. [Ebooks]
Ichimura, Shinichi, and Hui-Jiong Wang. 2003. Interregional Input-Output Analysis of the Chinese Economy. River Edge, NJ, USA: World Scientific. [Ebooks] (esp. Ch 1)
Peterson, William. 1991. Advances in Input-Output Analysis : Technology, Planning, and Development. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press. [Ebooks]
David Mulkey and Alan W. Hodges, Using Implan to Assess Local Economic Impacts, University of Florida IFAS Extension, Publication #FE168. [link]
US Dept of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis: Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II)
Input-Output (Gunter Krumme, University of Washington)
Internet Resources for the Leontief Model (John H. Mathews, California State Univ. Fullerton)
Input-Output Analysis and Related Methods (Thayer Watkins, San Jose State University)

overview of IMPLAN



Nov 2: Student Presentations (ca. 10 minute presentations + 5-8 min discussion per group)

Assignment 3: Industry Analysis


PEOPLE: Occupations, Labor Markets, Workforce Development, LABOR MIGRATION

Nov 7: Occupational Analysis & Workforce Development

Beauregard, Robert A. 1999. “The Employment Fulcrum: Evaluating Local Economic Performance.” Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 13. No. 1. Pp. 8-14.

Markusen, Ann. “Targeting Occupations in Regional and Community Economic Development.” 2004. Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 70, No. 3: 253-268.

Elisa Barbour and Ann Markusen. "Regional Occupational and Industrial Structure: Does the One Imply the Other?" 2007. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 30, No. 1:1-19.

Angel, David P. "The Labor Market for Engineers in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry" Economic Geography, Vol. 65, No. 2, April 1989, pp. 99-112.

The Role of the Workforce Development System in the Economic Development of Urban Areas Kevin Hollenbeck, in Nancy Brooks, Kieran Donaghy, and Gerrit-Jan Knaap, 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning." Oxford Handbooks Online. [accessible through UM Library online]

see also:
Koo, J. 2005. How to analyze the regional economy with occupation data. Economic Development Quarterly 19, no 4: 356-72. [could be useful for Assignment 3]

Harper-Anderson, Elsie, “Measuring the Connection Between Workforce Development and Economic Development: Examining the Role of Sector-Based Strategies for Local Outcomes,” Economic Development Quarterly 22(2), 2008.

Persky, Joseph, Daniel Felsenstein, and Virginia Carlson. 2004. Does "Trickle Down" Work? : Economic Development Strategies and Job Chains in Local Labor Markets. Kalamazoo, MI, USA: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. [Ebooks]

Bosworth, Brian R., et. al. Using Regional Economic Analysis in Urban Jobs Strategies. Carrboro, NC: Regional Technology Strategies, February 1997. (Note: a LONG document; read selectively, e.g., the section on "Thinking Strategically About Your Regional Labor Market," pp. 34-42.)

Ranney, David C. and John J. Betancur. 1992. "Labor-Force-Based Development: A Community-Oriented Approach to Targeting Job Training and Industrial Development." Economic Development Quarterly 6,3: 286-96.

Mathur, V. K. 1999. “Human capital-based strategy for regional economic development.” Economic Development Quarterly 13: 203-216

Ann Markusen and Greg Schrock. 2008. Placing Labor Center-Stage in Industrial City Revitalization, in McGahey, Richard, and Vey, Jennifer S., eds. Retooling for Growth : Building a 21st Century Economy in America's Older Industrial Areas. Washington, DC, USA: Brookings Institution Press. [Ebooks]

Schrock, G. (2014). Connecting people and place prosperity: Workforce development and urban planning in scholarship and practice. Journal of Planning Literature, 29(3), 257-271.

Nov 9: Demography, Labor Migration, Displacement

Tiebout, Charles M. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 64, No. 5, October 1956, pp. 416-424.

Frey, William H. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanization." Urban Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4-5, May 1995, pp. 733-757.

Florida, Richard. 2002. Bohemia and economic geography, Journal of Economic Geography 2 (Jan): 55-71.

Myers, Dowell and Lee Menifee . "Population Analysis," in The Practice of Local Government Planning, 3rd edition, edited by Charles J. Hoch, Linda C. Dalton and Frank S. So, International City/County Management Association, 2000, pp. 61-86.

Jasper, James M.. Restless Nation : Starting Over in America. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press, 2002. (Ch 3. New Places, Names, and Selves) [Ebooks]

see also:
Gottlieb, P.D. 2011. Supply or demand, make or buy: Two simple frameworks for thinking about a state-level brain drain policy. Economic Development Quarterly 25, no 4: 303-15. [see also the other articles in this EDQ Special Issue on "Brain Drain"]

excerpts from Bill Bishop, The Big Sort [link]

Florida, Richard. Who's Your City? : How the Creative Economy Is Making Where You Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books, 2008. [Ebooks]

Brookings: Audrey Singer, Migration and the Metropolis (April 2013) [online]
Frey, William H.: Migration to the suburbs and Sun Belt picks up (April 2013) [online]
Frey, William H. A Rollercoaster Decade for Migration, Brookings. (2009) [online]

Moss, L. A. G., ed. Amenity Migrants : Seeking and Sustaining Mountains and Their Cultures. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, GBR: CABI Publishing, 2006. (Chapter 4. Geographic Perspective on Amenity Migration across the USA: National-, Regional- and Local-scale Analysis) [Ebooks]

Nick Schulz . Mobility Matters: Understanding the New Geography of Jobs (An Interview with Enrico Moretti, author of The New Geography of Jobs) The American. July 25, 2012. [link]

Judith K. Hellerstein, Mark J. Kutzbach, and David Neumark, 2014. "Do Labor Market Networks Have an Important Spatial Dimension?" Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 79, pp. 39-58.

US Census:Geographical Mobility/Migration •  Migration Data and ReportsCensus Flows Mapper
United Van Lines 2014 National Movers Study
the American Moving & Storage Association
CS Monitor: "Patchwork Nation"

[note: labor mobility now on Tuesday Nov 14; housing and economic development on Thursday Nov 16

Nov 14: Labor Mobility: Up the Occupational/Career Ladders (and often out across space as well)

Note: Let's set aside some class time this week to discuss strategies for Assignment 4 (and your Nov 21 presentations). Please email me with any suggestions, questions, etc. Examples: Where to find data. How to download data. What kinds of variables to use. What larger planning, policy and urban economic/demographic questions should I use to organize our project? What kinds of comparisons between the two cities are useful? etc.

Iversen, Roberta Rehner, and Armstrong, Annie Laurie. Jobs Aren't Enough : Toward a New Economic Mobility for Low-Income Families. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Temple University Press, 2006. (Ch 1 Are Jobs Enough for Economic Mobility? Ch 2 From the Old to the New Economic Mobility) [Ebooks]

Giloth, Robert P., ed. Workforce Development Politics : Civic Capacity and Performance. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Temple University Press, 2004. (Ch 1: The "Local" in Workforce Development Politics: An Introduction) [Ebooks]

Nelson, M. and L. Wolf-Powers. 2010. Chains and ladders: Exploring the opportunities for workforce development and poverty reduction in the hospital sector. Economic Development Quarterly 24, no 1: 33-44.

Persky, Joseph, Daniel Felsenstein, and Virginia Carlson. 2004. Does "Trickle Down" Work? : Economic Development Strategies and Job Chains in Local Labor Markets. Kalamazoo, MI, USA: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. [Ebooks] (read Ch. 2: "Labor Markets and Trickle Down," pp. 11-22)

see also:

Meléndez, Edwin. Communities and Workforce Development. Kalamazoo, MI, USA: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2004. [Ebooks]

Garmise, Shari. People and the Competitive Advantage of Place : Building a Workforce for the 21st Century. Armonk, NY, USA: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2005. [Ebooks]

Brueckner, J.K., J.-F. Thisse and Y. Zenou. 2002. Local labor markets, job matching, and urban location. International Economic Review 43, no 1: 155-71.

W.E. Upjohn Institute Local Labor Markets research publications

*Examples of Local Labor Market Analyses:
Los Angeles
Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. 2013. Industry and Labor Market Intelligence for Los Angeles County.

New York City
NYC Office of Workforce Development: NYC Labor Market Information Service
New York State, Department of Labor: Labor Statistics for the New York City Region
Community Service Society: Labor Market Policy
CUNY, Center for Urban Research: The NYC Labor Market Information Service

State of Michigan, Department of Technology, Management, and Budget: Demographic and Labor Market Profile: Detroit City (April 2015)
JPMORGAN CHASE: Driving Opportunity in Detroit


Nov 16: Housing as an Economic Development Issue: Affordability, Displacement, Long Commutes, Jobs-Housing Imbalances and the Rent-versus-Own Debate

Keith Wardrip, Laura Williams, and Suzanne Hague. 2011. The Role of Affordable Housing in Creating Jobs and Stimulating Local Economic Development: A Review of the Literature. Center for Housing Policy. January. [link, a copy also in Canvas]

Palm, Matthew, and Deb Niemeier. 2017. "Achieving Regional Housing Planning Objectives: Directing Affordable Housing to Jobs-Rich Neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area." Journal of the American Planning Association 83 (4):377-388. [in Canvas]

please also read a selection of the following articles to get a sense of the issues:

von Hoffman, Alexander. 2009. "Housing and Planning: A Century of Social Reform and Local Power." Journal of the American Planning Association 75 (2):231-244. [in Canvas]
Catherine Glossop. Housing and economic development: Moving forward together. Center for Cities. November 2008. [link]
The 2016 Housing Trust Fund Survey Report: Opening Doors to Homes for All. [link]
Conor Dougherty and Andrew Burton. 2017. A 2:15 Alarm, 2 Trains and a Bus Get Her to Work by 7 A.M. The New York Times. Aug 17. [link]
Conor Dougherty. 2016. In Cramped and Costly Bay Area, Cries to Build, Baby, Build. The New York Times. Apr 16. [link]
Richard Florida. 2016. The Diverging Economies of L.A. and San Francisco. CityLab, Apr 25. [link]
Kriston Capps. 2015. NIMBYism Is a Huge Drag on America's Economic Growth. CityLab, June 5. [link]
Tanvi Misra. 2015. Jersey City's Innovative New Affordable Housing Plan Might Actually Work. CityLab, Sep 3. [link]
Adam Nagourney and Conor Dougherty. 2017. The Cost of a Hot Economy in California: A Severe Housing Crisis.  The New York Times. July 17. [link]
Jason Wilson. 2015. Is hip Portland over? How the rent crisis is displacing the city's creative soul. The Guardian. Nov 23. [link]
Nick Wingfield. 2015. Seattle, in Midst of Tech Boom, Tries to Keep Its Soul. The New York Times. Oct 8. [link]
Schwarz, David.  2016.  The Importance of Affordable Housing to Economic Competitiveness.  Economic Development Journal 15 (1), Winter. [link]
Rebecca Cohen and Keith Wardrip.  2011.  The Economic and Fiscal Benefits of Affordable Housing, Planning Commissioners Journal, Number 83 / Summer.  [link]
Patrick Sisson.  2017.  Supercommuters, skyrocketing commutes, and America’s affordable housing crisis.  Curbed. June 20. [link]


Nov 21: Student Presentations

Assignment 4: Occupational Analysis

[link to upload slides]



Nov 23: Thanksgiving Break -- no class



Programs / Policies: Understanding and evaluating

[note: readings/topics switched on Nov. 28 - Dec 7]

Nov 28: Special discussion session -- The Unsettled City Economy: Nostalgia for the Vanishing Manufacturing World & the Contemporary Dilemma of Urban Gentrification in Post-Industrial Cities

Recent political discussions have (re)engaged the question of manufacturing employment as an appealing base for American local economies. Is this call for "onshoring" / bringing manufacturing back either plausible or desirable? Please read this collection of brief, lively articles on the shifting, unsettling foundations of urban economies: from manufacturing to services, and from urban decline (one form of migration and displacement) to gentrification (another form of migration and displacement). Consider the dynamic and uneasy relationships between the disruptive rush towards urban economic innovation/reinvention and the need for community stability, continuity and a sense of place (and even a right to stay in place). [NOTE: you can access the readings two ways: copies in Canvas, and direct links to The New Yorker site]

Gopnik, Adam. 2015. Naked Cities, The New Yorker, Oct 05.
Sanneh, Kelefa. 2016. Is Gentrification really a problem? What the American ghetto reveals about the ethics and economics of changing neighborhoods, The New Yorker, Jul 11.
Ledbetter, James. 2015. What’s So Great About Manufacturing? The New Yorker, August 6.
Sernovitz, Gary. 2016. Why We Pine for Manufacturing,The New Yorker, August 6.

related (optional) readings:

on gentrification tensions playing out in public parks:
Wong, Julia Carrie. 2015. Dropbox, Airbnb, and the Fight over San Francisco’s Public Spaces, The New Yorker, October 23.

and some articles on the earlier stages of New York City's gentrification and shift away from manufacturing:
Howe, Marvine.  1984.  Have-Nots Fear 'Manhattanization' As Developers Size Up Chinatown. The New York Times.  Sep 21.
Wald, Matthew L.  1987.  Managing Gentrification: A Challenge to the Cities.   The New York Times.  Sep 13.
Muschamp, Herbert.  1995.  Remodeling New York For the Bourgeoisie.  The New York Times.  Sep 24.
Berlin, Joseph.  2004.  The Shrinking and Fading Garment Center; As Manufacturing Shifts in Fashion Industry, Gritty Lofts Become Upscale ApartmentsThe New York Times.  Aug 23


Nov 30: Economic Development Evaluation I: Techniques

Reese, L.A. 2014. If all you have is a hammer: Finding economic development policies that matter. The American Review of Public Administration 44, no 6: 627-55.

Rubin, Herbert J. "Shoot Anything That Flies; Claim Anything That Falls: Conversations With Economic Development Practitioners." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1988, pp. 236-251.

Reese, Laura and David Fasenfest ("What Works Best...") and Daniel C. Knudsen ("Rejoinder...") "What Works Best?: Values and the Evaluation of Local Economic Development Policy" and "Rejoinder: Values, Valuation and Evaluation: Limits of Theory on Practice, ." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, August 1997, pp. 195-211.

Lyons, Thomas S., and Hamlin, Roger E.. Creating an Economic Development Action Plan : A Guide for Development Professionals Revised & Updated Edition. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press, 2001. (Ch. 5: "Program Evaluation"). [Ebooks]

Background literature on evaluation research:

Abravanel, M. D., Pindus, N. M., & Theodos, B. (2010). Evaluating community and economic development programs. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. [in Canvas and also via this link]

Isserman, Andrew and Terance Rephann. "The Economic Effects of the Appalachian Regional Commission: An Empirical Assessment of 26 Years of Regional Development Planning." Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 61, No. 3, Summer 1995, pp. 345-364.
Davis, H. Craig Regional Economic Impact Analysis and Project Evaluation [preview via google book project]
BEA on Input-Output Analysis [link]

Felsenstein, Daniel, and Joseph Persky. "When Is a Cost Really a Benefit? Local Welfare Effects and Employment Creation in the Evaluation of Economic Development Programs." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 46-54.

Lyons, Thomas S., and Roger E. Hamlin. 2001. Creating an Economic Development Action Plan : A Guide for Development Professionals Revised & Updated Edition. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press. [Section on "Program Evaluation"]. [Ebooks]

Wholey, Joseph S., Hatry, Harry P., and Newcomer, Kathryn E.. Essential Texts for Nonprofit and Public Leadership and Management : Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation (3rd Edition). Hoboken, NJ, USA: Jossey-Bass, 2010. [Ebooks]

Anderson, John E., and Wassmer, Robert W.. Bidding for Business: The Efficacy of Local Economic Development Incentives in a Metropolitan Area. Kalamazoo, US: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2000. [Ebooks]

Alexander, Ernest, and Graham Haughton. 2012. Evaluation in Planning. Brookfield, GB: Ashgate. [Ebooks]

Baker, Judy L., and World Bank. 2000. Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty. Washington, US: The World Bank. [Ebooks]

Stufflebeam, Daniel L., and Coryn, Chris L. S.2014. Research Methods for the Social Sciences : Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications (2). Somerset, US: Jossey-Bass. [Ebooks]

Mertens, Donna M., and Wilson, Amy T. 2016. Program Evaluation Theory and Practice : A Comprehensive Guide. New York, US: The Guilford Press, 2012. [Ebooks]

Brett, Deborah L., and Schmitz, Adrienne.2009. Real Estate Market Analysis : Methods and Case Studies, Second Edition. Washington, US: Urban Land Institute. [Ebooks]

download useful excel spreadsheet with cost-benefit, location quotients, multiplier, etc.



Dec 5: Economic Development Evaluation II: Case Studies of BMW and Film Subsidies

Case Study #1: BMW in Spartanburg
• The Economic Impact of BMW on South Carolina (2002) [in Canvas]

•  BMW's Impact in South Carolina: Two Decades of Economic Development (Dec 2014) (U. of South Carolina Business School)
community impacts: BMW site

see also
• Jay Hancock,1999. "S.C. pays dearly for added jobs: South Carolina's economy was supposed to improve, but taxes exploded while services crumbled," Baltimore Sun, Originally published on Oct 12 1999. [link]
Tracking Subsidies, Promoting Accountability in Economic Development (Good Jobs First)
• Jason Spencer, "Spartanburg takes a look back at landing BMW," The State, July 13, 2014

Case Study #2: State Subsidies of the Film Industry
• Steven R. Miller and Abdul Abdulkadri, The Economic Impact of Michigan’s Motion Picture Production Industry and the Michigan Motion Picture Production Credit, Center for Economic Analysis, Michigan State University, February 6, 2009 [link]
• Robert Tannerwald, State Film Subsidies: Not Much Bang for Too Many Bucks, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, (Dec. 9, 2010) [link]
• David Zin, Film Incentives in Michigan, Issue paper, Senate Fiscal Agency, September 2010. [link]
• Michael D. LaFaive, Flawed MSU Film Subsidy Report Misleads Taxpayers,Viewpoint on Public Issues, July 6, 2009 (No. 2009-19), Mackinac Center for Public Policy. [link to web page; pdf version of report]
• Philips, Andrew, Robert Cline and William Fox. Evaluating the effectiveness of state film tax credit programs: Issues that need to be considered. Commissioned by Motion Picture Association of America. N.P.: Ernst & Young, 2012.
• Preston, P. (2013). "If you scale back now, you probably lose everything": State tax incentives and the motion picture industry. MEIEA Journal, 13(1), 181-205.

[optional] see also these other case studies:
Hall, Peter V. "We’d Have to Sink the Ships: Impact Studies and the 2002 West Coast Port Lockout." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 4, November 2004, pp. 254-367.

Stone, Kenneth G. Impact of Walmart Stores on Iowa Communities: 1983- 1993, Economic Development Review, Vol. 13, #2 (Spring 1995), 60-69

Nelson, Arthur C. "Prosperity or Blight? A Question of Major League Stadia Locations." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 3, August 2001, pp. 255-265.

Delaney, Kevin J., and Eckstein, Rick. Public Dollars, Private Stadiums: The Battle Over Building Sports Stadiums. New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Rutgers University Press, 2004. [Ebooks]

Stokan, E., L. Thompson and R.J. Mahu. 2015. Testing the differential effect of business incubators on firm growth. Economic Development Quarterly 29, no 4: 317-27.



Persky, Joseph, Daniel Felsenstein, and Virginia Carlson. 2004. Does "Trickle Down" Work? : Economic Development Strategies and Job Chains in Local Labor Markets. Kalamazoo, MI, USA: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. [Ebooks] (read Ch. 3: "The Problem with Impact Analysis Counting Everything, Valuing Nothing")




Dec 7: Synthesis and Student Reflection Pieces

This penultimate session will provide an opportunity to link common themes from the various course sections and develop a set of principles for good local economic development and analysis. Be ready to share your contribution and discuss and compare each student's contribution.

TASK: Each student is to come to class with a one-page sheet (with enough copies for the class, i.e., 13 copies) of 5-7 lessons / principles from the course. (Format: a numbered list; each lesson / principle should be one or several sentences long.) If useful, you might also include a diagram, chart or illustration. Alternative formats: I encourage you, as an option, to explore alternative formats (rather than a list of lessons): you might combine text, keywords, questions, illustrations, diagrams, timelines, etc. Creativity and insightfulness welcomed. You might provide a conceptual map of local economic development.


Dec 12: Last Class

In-class Workshop/Discussion of the Final class project (which is due on Dec. 19). Please see the Assignment page for more details, including what to bring to class today.