Created by Susan Stagg-Williams, Dieter Andrew Schweiss, Gavin Sy, and H. Scott Fogler, 1994

Updated by Apeksha Bandi, Gustav Sandborgh, and Arthur Shih, 2013

### 4. Concentration of Sites Occupied by Venom

The number of free sites would change by irreversible attachment of venom molecules ( reaction 1) and the reversible attachment of antivenom molecules ( reaction 2) and the reaction of venom with antivenom molecules already bound onto the site and vice versa ( reaction 3 and 4).

The rate of generation of free sites would be the sum of rates of generation from the above reactions. The material balance equation would appear as follows:

The overall rate of generation of the neutralized product would be the addition of rate of generation from all of the reactions above.

(E-23)

The terms on the right hand side are rates of generation of sites occupied by venom in reactions 1 and 4 respectively.

The rate equations for the elementary reactions are as follows:

(E-24)

(E-25)

Combining the batch reactor design equation (equation E-4) with the material balance (equation E-23)and rate laws (equations E-24 and E-25) gives us the governing equation for the concentration of sites occupied by venom.

(E-26)

Dividing equation E-26 by C

_{s0} allows us to arrive at the governing equation for fraction of sites occupied by venom:

(E-27)

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