Acemoglu, Daron, Pol Antràs, and Elhanan Helpman. 2007. “Contracts and Technology Adoption,” American Economic Review 97(3), June, pp. 916-943. See Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Adams, W. G. S. 1915. "The Basis of Constructive Internationalism," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 61, September, pp. 217-229. See the economic weapon.

Agenda 21. 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio de Janerio, Brazil. See Precautionary Principle.

Akamatsu, Kaname. 1961. "A Theory of Unbalanced Growth in the World Economy," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 86(Heft 2), pp. 196-217. See Flying Geese.

Alchian, Armen A. and William R. Allen. 1964. University Economics, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. See Alchian-Allen Theorem.

Alexander, Sidney. 1952. "Effects of a Devaluation on a Trade Balance," IMF Staff Papers, 2(2), (April), pp. 263-278. See absorption approach.

Anderson, James E. and J. Peter Neary. 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies 63(1), (January), pp. 107-125. See trade restrictiveness index.

Anderson, James E. and Eric van Wincoop. 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review 93(1), (March), pp. 170-192. See multilateral resistance.

Anderson, Kym. 2001. "Globalization, WTO, and ASEAN," ASEAN Economic Bulletin 18(1), (April), pp. 12-23. See Ullyses Effect.

Angell, James W. 1926. The Theory of International Prices. History, Criticism and Restatement Cambridge: Harvard University Press. See price-specie flow mechanism.

Antweiler, Werner and Daniel Trefler. 2002. "Increasing Returns and All That: A View from Trade," American Economic Review 92(1), (March), pp. 93-119. See intra-mediate trade.

Arkolakis, Costas, Svetlana Demidova, Peter J. Klenow, and Andreés Rodríguez-Clare. 2008. "Endogenous Variety and the Gains from Trade," American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 98(2), (May), pp. 444-450. See Feenstra ratio.

Arkolakis, Costas, Arnaud Costinot, and Andreés Rodríguez-Clare. 2012. "New Trade Models, Same Old Gains?" American Economic Review 102(1), (February), pp. 94-130. See ACR formula.

Armington, Paul S. 1969. "A Theory of Demand for Products Distinguished by Place of Production," IMF Staff Papers 16(1), (March), pp. 159-178. See Armington assumption.

Arndt, Sven W. 1997. "Globalization and the Open Economy," North American Journal of Economics and Finance 8(1), pp. 71-79. See intra-product specialization.

Arrow, K.J., H.B. Chenery, B.S. Minhas, and R.M. Solow. 1961. "Capital-Labor Substitution and Economic Efficiency," Review of Economics and Statistics 43(3), (August), pp. 225-250. See CES function, homohypallagic, and SMAC function.

Ashley, William James. 1903. The Tariff Problem, London: P.S. King & Son. See dumping.

Auspitz, Rudolf und Richard Lieben. 1879. Théorie des Preises Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. See offer curve.

Autor, David, David Dorn, and Gordon Hanson. 2013. "The China Syndrome: The Impact of Import Competition on US Labor Markets," American Economic Review 103(6), pp. 2121-2168. See China shock.

Autor, David, David Dorn, and Gordon Hanson. 2016. "The China Shock: Learning about Labor Market Adjustment to Large Changes in Trade," Annual Review of Economics 8, pp. 205-240. See China shock.

Auty, Richard M. 1993. Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The Resource Curse Thesis, London: Routledge. See resource curse.

Backus, David K. and Gregor W. Smith. 1993. "Consumption and Real Exchange Rates in Dynamic Economies with Non-traded Goods," Journal of International Economics 35(3-4), November, pp. 297-316. See Backus-Smith Puzzle.

Backus, David K., Patrick J. Kehoe and Finn E. Kydland. 1992. "International Real Business Cycles," Journal of Political Economy 100(4), August, pp. 745-777. See quantity anomaly.

Baer, Paul. 1928. Das soziale Dumping, Halberstadt; H. Meyer. See social dumping.

Bagwell, Kyle and Robert W. Staiger. 1999. "Regionalism and Multilateral Tariff Cooperation," in John Piggott and Alan Woodland, eds., International Trade Policy and the Pacific Rim, New York, NY: St. Martins Press. See tariff complementarity.

Bagwell, Kyle and Robert W. Staiger. 2002. The Economics of the World Trading System., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See reciprocity up.

Bakas, Adjiedj. 2016. Capitalism & Slowbalization: The market, the state and the crowd in the 21st century, Wellesley, MA: Dexter Publishing. See slowbalization.

Balassa, Bela. 1964. "The Purchasing Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy 72(6), (December) pp. 584-596. See Balassa-Samuelson Effect.

Balassa, Bela. 1965. "Trade Liberalization and 'Revealed' Comparative Advantage," Manchester School 33(2), (May) pp. 99-123. See revealed comparative advantage.

Baldwin, Richard E. 1988. "Hysteresis In Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," American Economic Review 78(4), (September), pp. 773-785. See Beachhead effect.

Baldwin, Richard E. 1994. Towards an Integrated Europe, London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. See Hub and spoke integration.

Baldwin, Richard E. 2006. "Globalization: The Great Unbundling(s)," paper contributed to the project Globalisation Challenges for Europe and Finland organized by the Secretariat of the Economic Council of Finland, September 30, 2006. See 2nd unbundling.

Baldwin, Richard E. 2009. "The Spoke Trap: hub and spoke bilateralism in East Asia," working paper No. 2009/28, NCCR Trade Regulation, Swiss National Center of Competence in Research. See hub-ness.

Baldwin, Richard E. and Anthony J. Venables. 2013. "Spiders and snakes: Offshoring and agglomeration in the global economy," Journal of International Economics 90(3), (July), pp. 245-254. See spiders and snakes.

Baldwin, Robert E. 1948. "Equilibrium in International Trade: A Diagrammatic Analysis," Quarterly Journal of Economics 62(5), (November), pp. 748-762. See Baldwin envelope.

Baldwin, Robert E. 1969. "The Case Against Infant Industry Protection," Journal of Political Economy 77(3), (May-June), pp. 295-305. See infant industry protection.

Baldwin, Robert E. 1986. "The New Protectionism: A Response to Shifts in National Economic Power," in Dominick Salvatore, ed., The New Protectionist Threat to World Welfare, North-Holland. See new protectionism.

Barrie, A. Maltman. 1905. The Labour Day. Protection and Free Trade from the Workman's Point of View, London: George Vickers,. See lump of labor fallacy.

Barro, Robert. 1999. "Reagan vs. Clinton: Who's the Economic Champ?" Business Week, February 22, p. 22. See misery index.

Bartik, Timothy. 1991. Who Benefits from State and Local Economic Development Policies?, W.E. Upjohn Institute. See Bartik instrument.

Bastable, C. F. 1899. The Commerce of Nations, 2nd edition revised, London: Methuen & Co. See infant industry protection.

Batra, Raveendra. 1968. "A Note on the Effects of Tariffs on Domestic Prices," Indian Economic Journal 15(5), April, pp. 615-617. See Metzler paradox.

Baumol, William J., John C. Panzar, and Robert D. Willig. 1982. Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure, Academic Press, 1982. See contestable market.

Benassy, Jean-Pascal. 1996. "Taste for Variety and Optimum Production Patterns in Monopolistic Competition," Economic Letters, 42(1), July 1996, pp. 41-47. See Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Bentham, Jeremy. 1789. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, London: Hafner, 1948, p. 326. See international.

Berge, Wendell. 1946. "Cartels as Barriers to International Trade," Law and Contemporary Problems 11(4), Autumn, pp. 684-695. See beggar thy neighbor.

Bergson, Abram. 1938. "A Reformulation of Certain Aspects of Welfare Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics 52(2), (February), pp. 310-334. See Bergsonian social welfare function.

Bergsten, C. Fred. 1975. Toward a New International Economic Order, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. See bicycle theory.

Bergsten, C. Fred. 1996. "Globalizing Free Trade," Foreign Affairs 75, pp. 105-120. See competitive liberalization.

Bergsten, C. Fred. 1997. "Open Regionalism," The World Economy 20(5), (August), pp. 545-565. See open regionalism.

Bergsten, C. Fred. and William R. Cline 1982. Trade Policy in the 1980s Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See bicycle theory, level playing field.

Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., Stephen R. Cray, and Antoine Gervais. 2019. "The Gains from International Trade with Increasing Marginal Costs," manuscript, September 16. See Ideal price index.

Bernanke, Ben S. 2004. "The Great Moderation," Remarks at the meetings of the Eastern Economic Association, Washington, DC, February 20, online. See Great Moderation.

Bernanke, Ben S. 2005. "The Global Saving Glut and the U.S. Current Account Deficit," Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke At the Sandridge Lecture, Virginia Association of Economists, Richmond, Virginia, March 10, online. See global saving glut.

Bernard, Andrew B., Jonathan Eaton, J. Bradford Jensen, and Samuel Kortum. 2003. "Plants and Productivity in International Trade," Plants and Productivity in International Trade, 93(4), September, pp. 1268-1290. See new new trade theory.

Bernard, Andrew B., Emily J. Blanchard, Ilke Van Beveren, and Hylke Vandenbussche. 2012. "Carry-Along Trade," NBER Working Paper #18246, July. See carry-along trade.

Bernhofen, Daniel M. and John C. Brown. 2005. "An Empirical Assessment of the Comparative Advantage Gains from Trade: Evidence from Japan," American Economic Review 95(1), (March), pp. 208-225. See Deardorff-Dixit-Norman Index.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1958. "Immiserizing Growth: A Geometrical Note," Review of Economic Studies 25(3), (June), pp. 201-205. See immizerizing growth.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1959. "Protection, Real Wages and Real Incomes," The Economic Journal 69(276), December, pp. 733-748. See Ohlin definition.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1963. "Some Recent Trends in the Pure Theory of International Trade," Chapter 1 in Roy Harrod and Douglas Hague, International Trade Theory in a Developing World, London: MacMillan and Co. See Lerner paradox.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1982. "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities," Journal of Political Economy 90(5), (October), pp. 988-1002. See DUP activities.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1984. "Splintering and Disembodiment of Services and Developing Nations," The World Economy 7(2), (June), pp. 133-144. See splintering.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1984. "Why Are Services Cheaper in Poor Countries?," Economic Journal 94(374), (June), pp. 279-286. See Kravis-Lipsey-Bhagwati Effect.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1985. "Protectionism: Old Wine in New Bottles," Journal of Policy Modeling 7(1), pp. 23-33. See quid pro quo FDI.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1987. "Quid Pro Quo DFI and VIEs: Political-Economy-Theoretic Analyses," International Economic Journal 1(1), pp. 1-14. See VIE.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1990. "Departures from Multilateralism: Regionalism and Aggressive Unilateralism," Economic Journal, 100(403), December, pp. 1304-1317. See aggressive unilateralism.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1991. The World Trading System at Risk, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. See stumbling bloc.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1993. "Regionalism and Multilateralism: An Overview," in Jaime de Melo and Arvind Panagariya, eds., New Dimensions in Regional Integration, pp. 22-51. See dynamic time path question.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. 1995. "US Trade Policy: The Infatuation with FTAs," Discussion Paper Series No. 726, April; said to be forthcoming in Claude Barfield, ed., The Dangerous Obsession with Free Trade Areas, AEI, 1995, although I do not find record of this being published. See spaghetti bowl.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and Vivek H. Dehejia. 1994. "Freer Trade and Wages of the Unskilled -- Is Marx Striking Again?" in Jagdish N. Bhagwati and Marvin Kosters, eds., Trade and Wages: Leveling Wages Down?, Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, pp. 36-75. See kaleidoscope comparative advantage.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and Arvind Panagariya, eds. 1996. The Economics of Preferential Trade Agreements, College Park : Center for International Economics, University of Maryland. See preferential trading arrangement.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and V. K. Ramaswami. 1963. "Domestic Distortions, Tariffs and the Theory of Optimum Subsidy," Journal of Political Economy, 71(1), (February), pp. 44-50. See second-best argument for protection.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N., V. K. Ramaswami, and T. N. Srinivasan. 1969. "Domestic Distortions, Tariffs and the Theory of Optimum Subsidy: Some Further Results," Journal of Political Economy, 77(6), (November-December), pp. 1005-1010. See second-best argument for protection.

Bhagwati, Jagdish N. and T.N. Srinivasan. 1980. "Revenue Seeking: A Generalization of the Theory of Tariffs," Journal of Political Economy 88(6), (December), pp. 1069-1087. See revenue seeking.

Bickerdike, C. F. 1906. "The Theory of Incipient Taxes," Economic Journal 16(64), December, pp. 529-535. See deadweight loss, optimal tariff.

Bickerdike, C. F. 1920. "The Instability of Foreign Exchanges," Economic Journal 30(117), (March), pp. 118-122. See Bickerdike-Robinson-Metzler Condition.

Bierwag, G. O. 1964. "Balanced Growth and Technological Progress," Oxford Economic Papers N.S. 16(1), (March), pp. 55-69. See Lerner diagram.

Bleaney, Michael and David Fielding. 1995 "Investment, trade liberalisation and structural adjustment," Journal of Development Studies 32(2), December, See concertina tariff reduction.

Borensztein, Eduardo and Jonathan D. Ostry. 1994. "Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment in East European Industry," in Lucjan T. Orlowski and Dominick Salvatore, eds., Trade and Payments in Central and Eastern Europe’s Transforming Economies, Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, Chapter 15, pp. 349-363. See Impossible Trinity.

Borkakoti, Jitendralal. 1975. "Some Welfare Implications of the Neo-Technology Hypothesis of the Pattern of International Trade," Oxford Economic Papers, 27(3) (November), pp. 383-399. See neotechnology model.

Borrus, Michael, Laura D'Andrea Tyson, and John Zysman. 1984. "Creating Advantage: How Government Policies Shape High Technology Trade," BRIE Working Paper, Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, University of California, Berkeley. See New Trade Theory.

Boughner, Devry S., Harry de Gorter, and Ian M. Sheldon 2000. "The Economics of Two-Tier Tariff-Rate Import Quotas in Agriculture," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, April 2000. See water in the tariff.

Bowley, Arthur L. 1899. "Wages, Nominal and Real", in Palgrave’s Dictionary of Political Economy Vol III, New York: McMillan. See ideal price index.

Bowley, Arthur L. 1924. The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics: An Introductory Treatise, Oxford: Clarendon Press. See Edgeworth-Bowley box, offer curve.

Bown, Chad P. 2015. "Global Antidumping Database," World Bank, . See Global Antidumping Database.

Bown, Chad P. and Meredith A. Crowley. 2007. "Trade Deflection and Trade Depression," Journal of International Economics 72, pp. 176-201. See trade deflection.

Bradford, Anu. 2020. The Brussels Effect: How the European Union Rules the World New York, NY: Oxford University Press. See Brussels Effect.

Brainard, S. Lael. 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off Between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review 87(4), (Septembrer), pp. 520-544. See proximity-concentration tradeoff.

Bramhall, David F. and Walter Isard. 1960. "Gravity, Potential, and Spatial Interaction Models," chapter 6 in Walter Isard, Methods of Regional Analysis: an Introduction to Regional Science, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 493-568. See gravity model.

Brander, James and Paul Krugman. 1983. "A 'Reciprocal Dumping' Model of International Trade," Journal of International Economics 15(3/4), (November), pp. 313-321. See reciprocal dumping.

Brander, James A. and Barbara J. Spencer. 1981. "Tariffs and the Extraction of Foreign Monopoliy Rents under Potential Entry," Canadian Journal of Economics 14(3), (August), pp. 371-389. See strategic trade policy.

Brander, James A. and Barbara J. Spencer. 1984. "Tariff Protection and Imperfect Competition," in Henryk Kierzkowski, ed., Monopolistic Competition and International Trade, Oxford Univ. Press. See strategic trade policy argument for a tariff.

Brecher, Richard A. and C.F. Diaz-Alejandro. 1977. "Tariffs, Foreign Capital, and Immiserizing Growth," Journal of International Economics 7(4), (November), pp. 317-322. See Brecher-Alejandro Proposition.

Brecher, Richard A. and Robert C. Feenstra. 1983. "International Trade and Capital Mobility between Diversified Economies," Journal of International Economics 14(3-4), (May), pp. 321-339. See hat algebra.

Broda, Christian and David E. Weinstein. 2006. "Globalization and the Gains from Variety," Quarterly Journal of Economics 121(2), May, pp. 541-585. See ideal price index.

Brown, Alan A., Paul Marer and Egon Neuberger. 1974. "Prospects for U.S.-East European Trade," American Economic Review 64(2), (May), pp. 300-306. See mirror statistics.

Bruno, Michael. 1963. Interdependence, Resource Use and Structural Change in Israel, Jerusalem: Bank of Israel. See domestic resource cost.

Bruno, Michael. 1972. "Domestic Resource Costs and Effective Protection: Clarification and Synthesis," Journal of Political Economy 80(1), (Jan-Feb), pp. 16-33. See domestic resource cost.

Bruno, Michael and Jack Habib. 1976. "Taxes, Family Grants, and Redistribution," Journal of Public Economics 5(1-2), January-February, pp. 57-79. See Harberger triangle.

Buiter, Willem and Ebrahim Rahbari. 2012. "Rising Risks of Greek Euro Area Exit," Global Economics View, February 6. See grexit.

Burke, Edmund, the Hon. 1846. The Protective System Considered in Connection with the Present Tariff, in a Series of Twelve Essays, Washington, D.C.: J.& G.S. Gideon See pauper labor argument.

Cagan, P. 1956. "The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation," in Milton Friedman, ed., Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See hyperinflation.

Cahn, Hans J. 1950. "The Responsibility of the Successor State for War Debts," American Journal of International Law 44(3), July 1950, pp. 477-487. See odious debt.

Calvo, Guillermo A. 1998. "Capital Flows and Capital Market Crises: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops," Journal of Applied Economics 1(1), (November), pp. 35-54. See sudden stop.

Calvo, Guillermo A. and Carmen Reinhart. 2002. "Fear of Floating," Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(2), (May), pp. 379-408. See fear of floating.

Cantillon, Richard. 1730 but not published until 1755. Essay on the Nature of Commerce in General, translated by Henry Higgs, with a new introduction by Anthony Brewer, New Brunswick, USA: Transaction Publishers, 5th printing 2009. See price-specie flow mechanism.

Carlston, Kenneth S. 1956. "The World Society," Law and Structure of Social Action, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 85-114. See transnational corporation.

Carr, David L., James R. Markusen, and Keith E. Maskus. 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review 91(3), (June), pp. 693-708. See knowledge capital model.

Casas, F. R. and E. Kwan Choi. 1985. "Some Paradoxes of Transport Costs in International Trade," Southern Economic Journal 51(94), April, pp. 983-997. See Lerner paradox.

Cassel, Gustav. 1918. "Abnormal Deviations in International Exchanges," Economic Journal 28(112), (December), pp. 413-415. See purchasing power parity.

Cervantes, Mario and Dominique Guellec. 2002. "The Brain Drain: Old Myths, New Realities," OECD Observer No. 230, (January), pp. 40-42. See brain drain.

Chase, Samuel B., Jr. 1964. "Summary of Conference Discussion," in John F. Due, ed., The Role of Direct and Indirect Taxes in the Federal Revenue System Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 295-313. See Harberger triangle.

Chinn, Menzie D. and Hiro Ito. 2006. "What Matters for Financial Development? Capital Controls, Institutions, and Interactions," Journal of Development Economics 81(1), October, pp. 163-192. See Chinn-Ito index.

Chipman, John S. 1965. "A Survey of the Theory of International Trade: Part I, The Classical Theory," Econometrica 33(3), July, pp. 477-519. See comparative advantage.

Chipman, John S. 1966. "A Survey of the Theory of International Trade: Part III, The Modern Theory," Econometrica 34(1), January, pp. 18-76. See Metzler Paradox.

Chipman, John S. 2002. "Pareto: Manuel of Political Economy," unpublished manuscript, "a slightly abridged version [of which] was published in French in the Dictionaire des grandes æuvres économiques edited by Xavier Greffe, Jérôme Lallemant, and Michel De Vroey, Paris: Dalloz, pp. 424-433." See ophelimity.

Christensen, Laurits R., Dale W. Jorgenson, and Lawrence J. Lau. 1973. "Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers," Review of Economics and Statistics 55(1), (February) pp. 28-45. See translog function.

Christiansen, Sonja Boehmer. 1994. "The Precautionary Principle in Germany: Enabling Government," Chapter 2 in Tim O’Riordan and James Cameron, eds., Interpreting the Precautionary Principle, New York, NY: Earthscan Publications Ltd., pp. 31-60. See Precautionary Principle.

Ciuriak, Dan. 2005. "Anti-dumping at 100 Years and Counting: A Canadian Perspective," World Economy 28(5), pp. 641-649. See dumping.

Coase, Ronald. 1960. "The Problem of Social Cost," Journal of Law and Economics 3, (October), pp. 1-44. See Coase Theorem.

Cobb, Charles W. and Paul H. Douglas. 1928. "A Theory of Production," American Economic Review 18 (1, Supplement), (March), pp. 139-165. See Cobb-Douglas function.

Corden, W. Max. 1966. "The Structure of a Tariff System and the Effective Protective Rate," Journal of Political Economy 74(3), (June), pp. 221-237. See effective rate of protection, water in the tariff.

Corden, W. Max. 1974. Trade Policy and Economic Welfare Oxford: Clarendon Press. See conservative social welfare function, concertina tariff reduction.

Corden, W. Max. and J. Peter Neary. 1982. "Booming Sector and De-Industrialization in a Small Open Economy," Economic Journal 92(368), (December), pp. 825-848. See origin of Dutch disease.

Costinot, Arnaud and Andres Rodriguez Clare. 2013. "Online Appendix to Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization," March. See exact hat algebra.

Costinot, Arnaud and Andres Rodriguez Clare. 2014. "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization," in Gita Gopinath, Elhanan Helpman, and Kenneth Rogoff, eds., Handbook of International Economics, Vol. 4, Elsevier, 2014, chapter 4, pp. 197-261. See new quantitative trade model.

Costinot, Arnaud and Jonathan Vogel. 2015. "Beyond Ricardo: Assignment Models in International Trade," Annual Review of Economics 7, pp. 31-62. See Ricardo-Roy Model.

Courant, Paul N. and Alan V. Deardorff. 1992. "International Trade with Lumpy Countries," Journal of Political Economy 100(1), February, pp. 198-210. See lumpy country.

Cournot, A.. 1897. Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth, New York. See Cournot's law.

Creamer, D.. 1943. "Shifts of Manufacturing Industries," Industrial Location and Natural Resources, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 85-104. See constant market share analysis.

Davis, Donald R. and David E. Weinstein. 2002. "The Mystery of the Excess Trade (Balances)," American Economic Review 92(2), (May), pp. 170-174. See mystery of excess trade balances.

de Passalacqua, John L. A. 1968. “A Study of Intervention in Public International Law,” Revista de Derecho Puertorriqueno 8(30,31), pp. 131-280. See transnational corporation.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1979. "One-Way Arbitrage and Its Implications for the Foreign Exchange Market," Journal of Political Economy 87(2), (April), pp. 351-364. See one-way arbitrage.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1980. "The General Validity of the Law of Comparative Advantage," Journal of Political Economy 88(5), (October), pp. 941-957. See Deardorff-Dixit-Norman Index.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1982. "The General Validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem," American Economic Review 72(4), (September), pp. 683-694. See comvariance.

Deardorff, Alan V. 1994. "The Possibility of Factor Price Equalization, Revisited," Journal of International Economics 36(1-2), (February), pp. 167-175. See lens condition.

Deardorff, Alan V. and Robert M. Stern, eds. 1994. The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: A Golden Jubilee Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Decker, Matthew. 1748. An Essay On the Causes of the Decline of the Foreign Trade, Consequently Of the Value of the Lands of Britain, and on the Means to Restore Both. Begun in the Year 1739, 2nd Ed., Dublin, George Faulkner. See carry trade.

Dekle, Robert, Jonathan Eaton, and Samuel Kortum. 2007. "Unbalanced Trade" American Economic Review Papers and Procedings 97(2). May, pp. 351-355. See hat algebra.

Despres, Emile, Charles P. Kindleberger, and Walter S. Salant. 1966. "The Dollar and World Liquidity. A Minority View" The Economist, February 5. See benign neglect.

Diewert, W. E. 1978. "Superlative Index Numbers and Consistency in Aggregation," Econometrica 46(4), July, pp. 883-900. See ideal price index.

Dixit, Avinash K and Gene M. Grossman. 1982. "Trade and Protection with Multistage Production," Review of Economic Studies 49(4), pp. 583-594. See multistage production.

Dixit, Avinash K and Victor Norman. 1980. Theory of International Trade, London: Cambridge University Press. See Integrated World Economy, Integrated World Economy Diagram, Deardorff-Dixit-Norman Index.

Dixit, Avinash K. and Joseph E. Stiglitz. 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review 67(3), (June), pp. 297-308. See Dixit-Stiglitz function, ideal price index.

Dornbusch, Rudiger. 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy 84(6), (December), pp. 1161-1176. See exchange rate overshooting.

Dornbusch, Rudiger, Stanley Fischer, and Paul A. Samuelson. 1977. "Comparative Advantage, Trade, and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods," American Economic Review 67(5), (December), pp. 823-839. See DFS model, continuum-of-goods model.

Dornbusch, Rudiger, Stanley Fischer, and Paul A. Samuelson. 1980. "Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory with a Continuum of Goods," Quarterly Journal of Economics 95(2), (September), pp. 203-224. See DFS model, continuum-of-goods model.

Dorrance, G.S. 1948. "The Income Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Studies 16(1), pp. 50-56. See income terms of trade.

Dunning, J.H. 1979. "Explaining Changing Patterns of International Production: In Defence of an Eclectic Theory," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 41(4), (November), pp. 269-295. See OLI paradigm.

Dupuit, Arsène Jules Étienne Juvénal. 1844. "De la mesure de l'utilité des travaux publics," Annales des ponts et chausses, second series, 8; translated by R.H. Barback as "On the measurement of the utility of public works." International Economic Papers 2, 1952, pp.83-110; reprinted in Kenneth J. Arrow and Tibor Scitovsky, eds., Readings in Welfare Economics, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1969, pp. 255-83. See Harberger triangle.

Easterlin, Richard. 1974. "Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence," in Paul A. David and Melvin W. Reder, eds., Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz, New York: Academic Press, pp. 89-125. See Easterlin paradox.

Easterly, William. 2006. The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good, Oxford: Oxford University Press. See CIAO.

Eaton, Jonathan and Samuel Kortum. 2002. "Technology, Geography, and Trade," Econometrica 70(5), (September), pp. 1741-1779. See Eaton-Kortum Model.

Eaton, Jonathan, Samuel Kortum, Brent Neiman, and John Romalis. 2011. "Trade and the Global Recession," NBER Working Paper #16666 (January). See Head-Ries Index.

Economist. 1989. "A GATTling Gun for Farms," July 8. See tariffication.

Economist. 2010. "Economics focus: From bail-out to bail-in," January 28. See bail-in.

Economist. 2013. "The Economist explains: Where did banana republics get their name?," November 21. See banana republic.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1881. Mathematical Psychics. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1894. "The Theory of International Values, Part I," Economic Journal 4(13), (March) pp. 35-50. See immiserizing growth, optimal tariff.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1894. "The Theory of International Values, Part II," Economic Journal 4(15), (September) pp. 424-443. See offer curve.

Edgeworth, Francis. Y. 1894. "The Theory of International Values, Part III," Economic Journal 4(16), (December) pp. 606-638. See offer curve.

Ehrlich, Thomas, Gerald M. Meier, James R. Atwood, John H. Barton and Nolan E. Clark. 1968. "Legal Problems of International Monetary Reform," Stanford Law Review 20(5), (May) pp. 870-999. See Special Drawing Right.

Eichengreen, Barry. 1993. "Epilogue: Three Perspectives on the Bretton Woods System," in Michael D. Bordo and Barry Eichengreen, eds., A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 621-658. See Holy Trinity.

Eichengreen, Barry. 2011. Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System, New York: Oxford University Press. See agency security, Anglo-American Loan, Committee of Twenty, Delors Report, Dodge Plan, ecu, gold bloc, Greenspan put, International Banking Corporation, International Clearing Union, Marshall-Dodge fixed-rate dollar standard, open mouth policy, privateering, realignment, scarce currency clause, seigniorage, Snake in the Lake, stabilization fund, substitution account, trade acceptance, two tier gold market, unitas, Werner Committee.

Eichengreen, Barry and Ricardo Hausmann. 1999. "Exchange Rate and Financial Fragility," NBER Working Paper 7418. See original sin.

Eichengreen, Barry and Donald Mathieson. 1998. "Hedge Funds and Financial Markets: Implications for Policy," Chapter I in Hedge Funds and Financial Market Dynamics, Occasional Paper #166, by a staff team led by Barry Eichengreen and Donald Mathieson, International Monetary Fund, May. See carry trade.

Elliott, W. Y. 1937. "Prospects for Foreign Trade,"" Virginia Quarterly Review 13(1), Winter, pp. 20-34. See beggar thy neighbor.

Ellsworth, P. T. 1954. "The Structure of American Foreign Trade: A New View Examined,"" Review of Economics and Statistics 36(3), August, pp. 279-285. See Leontief Paradox.

Ely, Richard T. 1888. Problems of Today, Boston: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. See infant industry protection.

Emerson, Michael. 1982. "Experience under the EMS and Prospects for Further Progress towards EMU,"" chapter 2 in Sumner, M.T. and G. Zis, eds., European Monetary Union. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 18-32. See variable geometry.

Erler, Georg. 1956. Grundproblema des Internationalen Wirtschaftsrechts, Göttingen: Verlag Otto Schwartz. See Most Favored Nation.

Estevadeordal, Antoni and Alan M. Taylor. 2013. "Is the Washington Consensus Dead? Growth, Openness, and the Great Liberalization, 1970s-2000s", Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(5), December, pp. 1669–1690. See great liberalization.

Ethier, Wilfred. 1974. "Some of the Theorems of International Trade with Many Goods and Factors," Journal of International Economics 4(2), (May), pp. 199-206. See core propositions.

Ethier, Wilfred J. 1982. "Decreasing Costs in International Trade and Frank Graham's Argument for Protection," Econometrica 50(5), (September), pp. 1243-1268. See Graham argument for protection.

Ethier, Wilfred J. 1982. "National and international returns to scale in the theory of international trade," American Economic Review 72(3), (June), pp. 389-405. See international returns to scale, Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Falvey, Rod. 1994. "Revenue Enhancing Tariff Reform," Weltwirtschaftliches Achiv 130(1), pp. 175-190. See concertina tariff reduction.

Fama, Eugene F. 1984. "Forward and Spot Exchange Rates," Journal of Monetary Economics 14(3), (November), pp. 319-338. See Fama regression.

Farrell, Henry and Abraham Newman. 2019. "Weaponized Interdependence: How Global Economic Networks Shape Coercion and Surveillance," International Security, (Summer). See weaponized interdependence.

Feenstra, Robert C. 1994. "New Product Varieties and the Measurement of International Prices," American Economic Review 84(1), (March), pp. 157-77. See Feenstra ratio, ideal price index.

Feenstra, Robert C. 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives 12(4), (Fall), pp. 31-50. See disintegration.

Feenstra, Robert C. and Gordon H. Hanson 2003. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," in Kwan Choi and James Harrigan, eds., Handbook of International Trade Basil Blackwell, pp. 146-187. See global production sharing.

Feldstein, Martin and Charles Horioka. 1980. "Domestic Saving and International Capital Flows," Economic Journal 90(358), (June), pp. 314-329. See Feldstein-Horioka puzzle.

Ferrantino, Michael. 2006. "Quantifying the Trade and Economic Effects of Non-Tariff Measures," OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 28, January 20. See handicraft method.

Fetter, Frank A.. 1913. "Population or Prosperity: Annual Address of the President,," American Economic Review 3(1), (March), pp. 5-19. See lump of labor fallacy.

Fetter, Frank Whitson. 1935. "Favorable Balance of Trade," Quarterly Journal of Economics 49(4), (August), pp. 621-645. See balance of trade.

Findlay, Ronald. 1971. "Comparative Advantage, Effective Protection and the Domestic Resource Cost of Foreign Exchange," Journal of International Economics 1(2), May pp. 189-204. See Lerner diagram.

Findlay, Ronald and Harry Grubert. 1959. "Factor Intensities, Technological Progress and the Terms of Trade," Oxford Economic Papers 11(1), February, pp. 111-121. See Lerner diagram.

Finger, J. Michael. 1993. Antidumping: How It Works and Who Gets Hurt, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. See dumping.

Finger, J. Michael and Mordechai E. Kreinin. 1979. "A Measure of 'Export Similarity' and Its Possible Uses," Economic Journal, 89(356), (December), pp. 905-912. See Finger-Kreinin Index .

Fisher, Irving. 1922. The Making of Index Numbers: A Study of Their Varieties, Tests, and Reliability, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. See Ideal price index.

Fisher, Irving. 1930. The Theory of Interest, New York: Macmillan. See Fisher Effect.

Fleming, J.M. 1956. "The Optimal Tariff from an International Standpoint," Review of Economics and Statistics 38(1), (February), pp. 1-13. See optimal tariff.

Fleming, J.M. 1962. "Domestic Financial Policies under Fixed and under Floating Exchange Rates," IMF Staff Papers 9(3), (November), pp. 369-380. See Mundell-Fleming Model.

Frankel, Jeffrey A. 1994. "Sterilization of Money Inflows: Difficult (Calvo) or Easy (Reisen)?," Working Paper WP/94/159, International Monetary Fund, December. See Impossible Trinity.

Freund, Caroline and Martha Denisse Pierola. 2015. "Export Superstars," Review of Economics and Statistics 97(5), (December), pp. 1023-1032. See ExportSuperstar.

Flood, Robert P., and Peter M. Garber, 1984. "Collapsing exchange rate regimes: some linear examples," Journal of International Economics 17, pp. 1-13. See Canonical Model Of Currency Crises.

Frankel, Jeffrey. 1997. Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See natural trading partner, preferential trading arrangement, supernatural trading bloc, trade intensity index.

Frankel, Jeffrey. 2013. "Effects of Speculation and Interest Rates in a 'Carry Trade' Model of Commodity Prices," Working Paper #19463, National Bureau of Economic Research, September. See carry trade.

Friedman, Milton. 1953. "The Case for Flexible Exchange Rates," Essays in Positive Economics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See stabilizing speculation, trilemma.

Friedman, Milton. 1961. "The Lag in Effect of Monetary Policy," Journal of Political Economy 69(5), pp, 447-456. See long and variable lags.

Friedman, Milton. 1969. "The Optimum Quantity of Money," The Optimum Quantity of Money and Other Essays, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company. See Friedman rule, helicopter money.

Friedman, Milton. 1979. "President Carter’s Trilemma," Newsweek, October 1, 1979. See trilemma.

Friedman, Milton. 1983. "The Keynes Centenary: A Monetarist Reflects," Economist, June 4, 1983, pp. 17-19. See trilemma.

Friedman, Thomas. 1999. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 87-88. See golden straitjacket.

Froot, Kenneth A. and Kenneth Rogoff. 1991. "The EMS, the EMU, and the Transition to a Common Currency," NBER Macroeconomics Annual (6), pp. 269-328. See Froot-Rogoff effect.

Fuerbringer, Jonathan . 1997. "How Asian Currencies Tumbled So Quickly," New York Times. December 10. See carry trade.

Gabaix, Xavier. 2011. "The Granular Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica 79(3), (May), pp. 733-772. See granularity.

Galeano, Eduardo. 1973. Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent. See Paradox of Plenty.

Geary, Roy C. 1950. "A Note on 'A Constant-Utility Index of the Cost of Living'," Review of Economic Studies 18(2), (January), pp. 65–66. See Stone-Geary function.

Gerard, Emily D. 1882. Beggar my neighbour: a novel, Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons. See beggar thy neighbor.

Gini, Corrado. 1912. "Variabilità e mutabilità," ("Variability and Mutability") C. Cuppini, Bologna. See Gini coefficient.

Glejser, H. and A. Dramais. 1969. "A Gravity Model of Interdependent Equations to Estimate Flow Creation and Diversion," Journal of Regional Science 9(3), pp. 439-449. See gravity model.

Gold, Joseph. 1971. Special Drawing Rights: The Role of Language, Pamphlet Series No. 15, International. Monetary Fund. See Special Drawing Right.

Goldstein, Morris, David Folkerts-Landau, Peter Garber, Liliana Rojas-Suarez, and Michael Spencer. 1993. International Capital Markets: Part I. Exchange Rate Management and International Capital Flows, IMF. See convergence play.

Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier and Olivier Jeanne. 2007. "Capital Flows to Developing Countries: The Allocation Puzzle," CEPR Discussion paper No. DP6561. See allocation puzzle.

Graham, Frank. 1923. "Some Aspects of Protection Further Considered," Quarterly Journal of Economics 37, (July), pp. 199-227. See decreasing cost argument for protection, Graham's argument for protection, Graham's paradox.

Grassman, Sven. 1973. "A fundamental symmetry in international payment patterns," Journal of International Economics 3(2), (May), pp. 105-116. See Grassman's Law.

Grier, Jean Heilman. 2022. The International Procurement System: Liberalization & Protectionism, Washington, D.C.: Dalston Press of Djaghe LLC. See Berry Amendment, build-operate-transfer, Buy America, Buy American Act of 1988, Commercially available off-the-shelf, Federal Acquisition Regulation, Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, Opinion 2/15, public private partnership, Reciprocal Defense Procurement Agreement, Section 301, set-aside, threshold, US-Japan NTT Agreement, US-Japan Supercomputer Agreement.

Griffin, Leslie. 2019. "Carousel Retaliation: Tariff Uncertainty on Another Ride," Trade Vistas, Hinrich Foundation, October 10. Online See carousel approach.

Griffith, Winston H. 1987. “Can CARICOM countries replicate the Singapore experience?” Journal of Development Studies 24(1), pp. 60-82. See Asian Tigers.

Grossman, Gene M. and Elhanan Helpman. 1994. "Protection for Sale," American Economic Review 84(4), September 1994, pp. 833-850. See Protection for Sale.

Grossman, Gene M. and Elhanan Helpman. 1999. "The Internationalization of Economic Activity," National Science Foundation grant, July. See internationalization.

Grossman, Gene M. and Alan Krueger. 1993. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," in Peter M. Garber, ed., The Mexico-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 13-56. See environmental Kuznets curve.

Group of Ten. 1993. International Capital Movements and Foreign Exchange Markets: A Report to the Ministers and Governors by the Group of Deputies, April. See convergence trade.

Grubel, Herbert G. 1970. "The Theory of Intra-Industry Trade", in I. A. McDougall and R. H. Snape, eds., Studies in International Economics, Amsterdam. See home market effect.

Grubel, Herbert G. and Peter J. Lloyd. 1975. Intra-Industry Trade: The Theory and Measurement of International Trade in Differentiated Products, New York: Wiley. See Grubel-Lloyd Index, intra-industry trade.

Gruen, F. H. and W. M. Corden. 1970. "A tariff that worsens the terms of trade," in I. A. McDougall and R. H. Snape, eds., Studies in International Economics, Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 55-58. See Lerner paradox.

Gruen, Nicholas. 1993. "The Economics of Import/Export Links," Australian National University, Discussion Paper No. 289, April. See concertina tariff reduction.

Grunwald, Joseph and Kenneth Flamm. 1985. The Global Factory: Foreign Assembly in International Trade, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. See the global factory.

Gulotty, Robert. 2020. Narrowing the Channel: The Politics of Regulatory Protection in International Trade, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. See Bioterrorism Preparedness Act, Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, entangled mercantilism, European Chemicals Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Modernization Act, mirror reciprocity, negative reciprocity, nonviolation, Organisation Internationale de Normalisation, profit shifting, REACH, regulatory protection, reciprocal mercantilism, reciprocity up, scientific justification, self-notification.

Haberler, Gottfried von. 1937. The Theory of International Trade with Its Applications to Commercial Policy, New York: Macmillan. See specific factor.

Haberler, Gottfried von. 1949. "The Market for Foreign Exchange and Stability of the Balance of Payments," Kyklos, 4. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Haberler, Gottfried and Thomas D. Willett. 1971. A Strategy for U.S. Balance of Payments Policy, American Enterprise Institute, January 1. See benign neglect.

Haberler, Gottfried, Roberto de Oliveira Campos, James Meade, and Jan Tinbergen . 1958. Trends in International Trade: A Report by a Panel of Experts, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geneva. See Haberler Report.

Halm, George N. 1968. "International Financial Intermediation: Deficits Benign and Malignant,"" Essays in International Finance No. 68, Princeton, June. See benign neglect.

Hamilton, Alexander. 1791. Report on Manufactures, December 5; available online from several sites, including the Constitution Society. See infant industry protection .

Hamilton, Clive and Paul Kniest. 1991. "Trade Liberalisation, Structural Adjustment and Intra-Industry Trade: A Note," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 127(2), (June), pp. 356-367. See marginal intra-industry trade .

Hansen, Alvin. 1949. Monetary Theory and Fiscal Policy New York: McGraw-Hill. See IS-LM Model.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1950. "Currency Depreciation, Income, and the Balance of Trade," Journal of Political Economy 58(1), (February), pp. 47-60. See Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1954. "Monopoly and Resource Allocation," American Economic Review 44(2), May, pp. 77-87. See Harberger triangle.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1964a. "Taxation, Resource Allocation, and Welfare," in John F. Due, ed., The Role of Direct and Indirect Taxes in the Federal Revenue System, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 25-70. See Harberger triangle.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1964b. "The Measurement of Waste," American Economic Review 54(3), May, pp. 58-76. See Harberger triangle.

Hardin, Garrett. 1968. "The Tragedy of the Commons," Science 162(3859) (December 16), pp. 1243–1248. See tragedy of the commons.

Harrod, Roy F. 1933. International Economics, London: James Nisbet and Cambridge University Press. See BalassaSamuelsonEffect .

Hatton, Timothy J. and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 2007. "A Dual Policy Paradox: Why Have Trade and Immigration Policies Always Differed in Labor-Scarce Economies," in T. Hatton, K. O'Rourke, and A. Taylor, eds., The New Comparative Economic History, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See dual policy paradox.

Hausmann, Ricardo, Jason Hwang, and Dani Rodrik. 2007. "What You Export Matters," Journal of Economic Growth 12(1), (March), pp. 1-25. See export sophistication, product mix diagram.

Head, Keith and John Ries. (2001). "Increasing Returns versus National Product Differentiation as an Explanation for the Pattern of U.S.-Canada Trade," American Economic Review 91(4), (September), pp. 858-876. See Head-Ries Index.

Heckscher, Eli. 1919. "The Effect of Foreign Trade on the Distribution of Income," Ekonomisk Tidskrift, pp. 497-512. See Heckscher-Ohlin Model, Ohlin definition.

Henrich, Joseph, Steven J. Heine, and Ara Norenzayan. 2010. "The weirdest people in the world?," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33(2-3), (June) pp. 61-83. See WEIRD.

Herfindahl, Orris C. 1950. Concentration in the U.S. Steel Industry, unpublished doctoral dissertaiton, Columbia University. See Herfindahl index, Hirschman index.

Hicks, John R. 1937. "Mr. Keynes and the 'Classics': A Suggested Interpretation," Econometrica 5, April, pp. 147-159. See IS-LM Model.

Hicks, John R. 1939. "The Foundations of Welfare Economics," Economic Journal 49(196), December, pp. 696-712. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Hildebrand, George H. and Arthur Mace. 1950. "The Employment Multiplier in an Expanding Industrial Market: Los Angeles County, 1940-47," Review of Economics and Statistics 32(3), Aug. 1950, pp. 241-249. See beggar thy neighbor.

Hines, James R. 1999. "Three Sides of Harberger Triangles," Journal of Economic Perspectives 13(2), Spring, pp. 167-188. See Harberger triangle.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1945. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade, Berkeley. See Herfindahl index, Hirschman index.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1949. "Devaluation and the Trade Balance: A Note," Review of Economics and Statistics, 31(1), February, pp. 50-53. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1958. The Strategy of Economic Development, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. See linkage.

Hirschman, Albert O. 1964. "The Paternity of an Index," American Economic Review 54(5), (September), pp. 761-762. See Gini coefficient.

Hoekman, Bernard and Douglas Nelson. 2019. "How Should We Think about the Winners and Losers from Globalization? A Reply to Nicolas Lamp," European Journal of International Law 30(4), (November), pp. 1399-1408. See lump of labor fallacy.

Høiberg-Nielsen, Jens. 1983. Monetary Integration and the National Adjustment Process, Macroeconomic Policies of Deflation in a Small Open Economy: The case of Denmark, Thesis submitted for assessment with a view to obtaining the Degree of Doctor of the European University Institute, Florence, May. See Holy Trinity.

Hotelling, Harold. 1938. "The General Welfare in Relation to Problems of Taxation and of Railway and Utility Rates," Econometrica 6(3), July, pp. 242-269. See deadweight loss.

Hufbauer, Gary C. 1966. Synthetic Materials and the Theory of International Trade, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See technology gap model.

Hufbauer, Gary C. 1970. "The Impact of National Characteristics and Technology on Commodity Composition of Trade in Manufactured Goods," in Raymond Vernon, ed., The Technology Factor in International Trade, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. See neotechnology model.

Hume, David. 1777. "Of the Balance of Trade," Essay V in Essays: Moral, Political, Literary. See price-specie flow mechanism.

Hummels, David, Dana Rapoport, and Kei-Mu Yi. 1998. "Vertical Specialization and the Changing Nature of World Trade," FRBNY Economic Policy Review, (June), pp. 79-99. See vertical specialization.

Hummels, David and Alexandre Skiba. 2004. "Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of the Alchian-Allen Conjecture," Journal of Political Economy 112(6), (December), pp. 1384-1402. See Alchian-Allen Theorem.

Inada, Ken-Ichi. 1963. "On a Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth: Comments and a Generalization," Review of Economic Studies 30(2), June, pp. 119-127. See Inada conditions.

International Monetary Fund. 2010. "Reserve Accumulation and Intern ational Monetary Stability: Supplementary Information," IMF Policy Paper, Prepared by the Strategy, Policy and Review Department, April 13. Online See New bancor.

Ippolito, Richard A. 1976. "The Market for Illicit Monopoly: Its Implication for Social Welfare," Atlantic Economic Journal 4(2), Spring, pp. 9-18. See Harberger triangle.

Irwin, Douglas A. 2012. Trade Policy Disaster: Lessons from the 1930s Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See trilemma.

Irwin, Douglas A. 2017. Clashing over Commerce: Markets and Governments in Economic History Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See Abnormal Importations Act, Agricultural Adjustment Act, American Commercial Invasion, American selling price, American system, Antidumping Act of 1916, Apostle of protection, Argol agreements, birdcage phenomenon, Burke-Hartke Bill, Code of Trade Liberalization, Commission on Foreign Economic Policyy, Commission on International Trade and Investment Policy, competitive liberalization, conditional MFN, Dirty compromise, dollar gap, flexible tariff, Force Bill, free trade, Free Trade Convention, Gephardt Amendment, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Hawley-Smoot Tariff, Import Duties Act of 1932, Iowa Idea, Jay Treaty, Jokers, managed trade, Maximum-minimum tariff schedule, Méline tariff, Mills Bill, Mongrel Tariff, multilateral-bilateral, Non-intercourse Act, Nonimportation Agreements, Nullification crisis, Open Door Notes, Organization for Trade Cooperation, partnership, Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, Prohibitory Act, Special Trade Representative, Sugar Act of 1764, Tariff Board, tariff equality, Townshend Revenue Act, Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, trade or fade, Treaty of Amity and Commerce, unconditional MFN, World Economic Conference.

Jagannathan, Ravi. 1985. "An Investigation of Commodity Futures Prices Using the Consumption-Based Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model," Journal of Finance 40(1), March, pp. 175-191. See ideal price index.

Jenkin, H. C. Fleeming. 1871-72. "On the principles which regulate the incidence of taxes," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Session 1871-1872, pp. 618-31. See Harberger triangle.

Johnson, Harry G. 1951. "Optimum Welfare and Maximum Revenue Tariffs," Review of Economic Studies 19(1), 1951/52, pp. 28-35. See optimal tariff.

Johnson, Harry G. 1953. "Equilibrium Growth in an Expanding Economy," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 19(4), (November), pp. 478-500. See immiserizing growth.

Johnson, Harry G. 1953/1954. "Optimum Tariffs and Retaliation," Review of Economic Studies 21(2), pp. 142-153. See optimal tariff argument, tariffs and retaliation.

Johnson, Harry G. 1955. "Economic Expansion and International Trade," Manchester School 23(2), (May), pp. 95-112. See immizerizing growth.

Johnson, Harry G. 1958. "The Gains from Freer Trade with Europe: An Estimate," Manchester School 26(3), September, pp. 247-255. See Harberger triangle.

Johnson, Robert C. and Guillermo Noguera 2012. "Accounting for Intermediates: Production Sharing and Trade in Value Added," Journal of International Economics 86(2), (March), pp. 224-236. See production sharing and VAX ratio.

Jones, Ronald W. 1956. "Factor Proportions and the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem," Review of Economic Studies 24(91), pp. 1-10. See Ohlin definition.

Jones, Ronald W. 1965. "The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models," Journal of Political Economy 73(6), (December), pp. 557-572. See hat algebra, magnification effect.

Jones, Ronald W. 1971. "A Three-Factor Model in Theory, Trade, and History," in Bhagwati, et al., eds., Trade, Balance of Payments, and Growth: Essays in Honor of C. P. Kindleberger, Amsterdam: North-Holland. See Ricardo-Viner Model, Jones model.

Jones, Ronald W. 1977. "'Two-ness' in Trade Theory: Costs and Benefits," Special Papers in International Economics No. 12, International Finance Section, Princeton University, (April). See Lerner paradox, two-ness.

Jones, Ronald W. 1987. "Tax Wedges and Mobile Capital," Scandinavian Journal of Economics Vol. 89, No. 3, Modelling Trade and Trade Policy, September, pp. 335-346. See Lerner paradox.

Jones, Ronald W. and Henryk Kierzkowski. 1986. "Neighborhood Production Structures, with an Application to the Theory of International Trade," Oxford Economic Papers 38(1), (March), pp. 59-76. See neighborhood production structure.

Jones, Ronald W. and Henryk Kierzkowski. 1990. "The Role of Services in Production and International Trade: A Theoretical Framework," in Ronald W. Jones and Anne O. Krueger, eds., The Political Economy of International Trade: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Baldwin, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, pp. 31-48. See fragmentation.

Jones, R.W. and J. Scheinkman. 1977. "The Relevance of the Two-Sector Production Model in Trade Theory," Journal of Political Economy 85(5), (October), pp. 909-936. See two-ness.

Kahn, R. F.. 1947. "Tariffs and the Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Studies 15(1), pp. 14-19. See optimal tariff.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1939. "Welfare Propositions of Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility," Economic Journal 49(195), (September), pp. 549-552. See Kaldor-Hicks Criterion.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1940. "A Note on Tariffs and the Terms of Trade," Economica N.S. 7(28), (November), pp. 549-552. See optimal tariff.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1957. "A Model of Economic Growth," Economic Journal 67(268), (December), pp. 591-624. See stylized fact.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1961. "Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth," in D.C. Hague, ed., The Theory of Capital, New York: St. Martins Press, Chapter 10, pp. 177-222. See stylized fact.

Karl, Terry Lynn. 1982. The Political Economy of Petrodollars: Oil and Democracy in Venezuela, PhD Dissertation, Stanford University. See Paradox of Plenty.

Karl, Terry Lynn. 1997. The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro States, Berkeley: University of California Press. See Paradox of Plenty.

Katrak, Homi. 1977. "Multinational Monopolies and Commercial Policy," Oxford Economic Papers 29(2), (July), pp. 283-291. See strategic trade policy argument for a tariff.

Kemp, Murray C. 1960. "The Mill-Bastable Infant-Industry Dogma," Journal of Political Economy 68(1), (February), pp. 65-67. See infant industry protection.

Kemp, Murray C. 1966. "The Gain from International Trade and Investment: A Neo-Heckscher-Ohlin Approach," American Economic Review 56(4), September, pp. 788-809. See Lerner paradox.

Kemp, Murray C. and Henry Wan, Jr. 1976. "An Elementary Proposition Concerning the Formation of Customs Unions," Journal of International Economics 6(1), (February), pp. 95-97. See Kemp-Wan Theorem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1924. A Tract on Monetary Reform, London: MacMillan. See barbarous relic.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1929a. "The German Transfer Problem," Economic Journal 39(153), (March), pp. 1-7". See transfer problem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1929b. "The Reparations Problem: A Discussion. II. A Rejoinder," Economic Journal 39(154), (June), pp. 179-182". See transfer problem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1929c. "Mr. Keynes' Views on the Transfer Problem. III. A Reply," The Economic Journal 39(155), (September), pp. 404-408". See transfer problem.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, London: MacMillan. See Keynesian and liquidity trap.

Kim, Chang-Jin and Charles R. Nelson. 1999. "Has the U.S. Economy Become More Stable? A Bayesian Approach Based on a Markov-Switching Model of the Business Cycle," Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(4), (November), pp. 608-616. See Great Moderation.

Kindleberger, Charles P. 1973. The World in Depression, Berkeley: Univerisity of California Press. See Kindleberger spiral and hegemonic stability theory.

Kindleberger, Charles P. and Emile Despres. 1952. "The Mechanism for Adjustment in International Payments -- The Lessons of Postwar Experience," American Economic Review, 42(2), May 1952, pp. 332-344. See beggar thy neighbor.

Komiya, Ryutaro. 1967. "Non-Traded Goods and the Pure Theory of International Trade," International Economic Review 8(2), June, pp. 132-152. See Lerner paradox.

Kondratieff, Nikolai Dmyitriyevich. 1926. "The Long Waves in Economic Life"; translated into English and reprinted in Review of Economics and Statistics 17(6), (November) 1935, pp. 105-115. See Kondratieff cycle.

Kornai, Janos. 1979. "Resource-Constrained versus Demand-Constrained Systems," Econometrica 47(4), (July), pp. 801-819. See soft budget constraint.

Krasker,William S. 1980. "The 'Peso Problem' in Testing the Efficiency of Forward Exchange Markets," Journal of Monetary Economics 6(2), (April), pp. 269-276. See peso problem.

Krause, Lawrence B. 1970. "A Passive Balance-of-Payments Strategy for the United States," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1970(3), 1970, pp. 339-368. See benign neglect.

Kravis, Irving B. 1956. "'Availability' and Other Influences on the Commodity Composition of Trade," Journal of Political Economy 64(2), (April), pp. 143-155. See availability theory.

Kravis, Irving B. 1970. "Trade as a Handmaiden of Growth: Similarities between the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," Economic Journal 80(320), (December), pp. 850-872. See handmaiden of growth.

Kravis, Irving B. and Robert E. Lipsey. 1983. "Toward an Explanation of National Price Levels," Princeton Studies in International Finance 52 (November). See Kravis-Lipsey-Bhagwati effect.

Kravis, Irving B. Alan Heston, and Robert Summers. 1978. "Toward an Explanation of National Price Levels," International Comparisons of Real Product and Purchasing Power, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. See Penn effect.

Krueger, Anne O. 1974. "The Political Economy of the Rent Seeking Society," American Economic Review 64(3), (June), pp. 291-303. See rent seeking.

Krueger, Anne O. 2001. "Free Trade Agreements as Protectionist Devices: Rules of Origin," James R. Melvin, James Moore, and Raymond Riezman, editors, Trade, Theory and Econometrics: Essays in Honor of John S. Chipman, London: Routledge. See exported protection.

Krueger, Anne O. 2020. International Trade: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. See Active labor market policy, contagion, gray areas, origin engineering. stop-go cycle.

Krüger, W. 1926. "Employers' Associations in Germany," International Labour Review 14(3), September, pp. 313-344. See socialdumping.

Krugman, Paul R. 1979a. "Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition, and International Trade," Journal of International Economics 9(4), (November), pp. 469-479. See new trade theory.

Krugman, Paul R. 1979b. "A Model of Balance-of-Payments Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 11(3), pp. 311-325. See canonical model of currency crises.

Krugman, Paul R. 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review 70(5), (December), pp. 950-959. See home market effect.

Krugman, Paul R. 1986a. "Industrial Organization and International Trade," NBER Working Paper #1957, June. See New Trade Theory.

Krugman, Paul R. 1986b. "A 'Technology Gap' Model of International Trade," in K. Jungenfelt and D. Hague, eds., Structural Adjustment in Advanced Economies London: Macmillan; reprinted in Krugman (1990). See technology gap model.

Krugman, Paul R. 1987. "Pricing to Market When the Exchange Rate Changes," in Sven W. Arndt and J. David Richardson, Real-Financial Linkages Among Open Economics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 49-70. See pricing to market.

Krugman, Paul R. 1989. "Differences in Income Elasticities and Trends in Real Exchange Rates," European Economic Review 33(5), (May) pp. 1031-1046. See 45-degree rule and Thirlwall's Law.

Krugman, Paul R. 1990. Rethinking International Trade, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See Krugman (1986).

Krugman, Paul R. 1991a. Geography and Trade, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See new economic geography, Krugman specialization index, and locational Gini index.

Krugman, Paul R. 1991b. "The Move Toward Free Trade Zones," in Policy Implications of Trade and Currency Zones, symposium sponsored by The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, August 22-24. See GATT-Think.

Krugman, Paul R. 1991c. "Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(3), (August), pp. 669-682. See target zone.

Krugman, Paul R. 1994. "Does Third World Growth Hurt First World Prosperity?" Harvard Business Review 72, (July), pp. 113-121. See slicing up the value chain.

Krugman, Paul R. 1997a. "Currency Crises," unpublished document, available at It is undated, but reference to the Asian Crisis "on July 2 of this year" indicates its date. See Canonical Model Of Currency Crises.

Krugman, Paul R. 1997b. "What Should Trade Negotiators Negotiate About?," Journal of Economic Literature 35(1), March 1997, pp. 113-120. See reciprocal mercantilism.

Krugman, Paul R. 2003. "Lumps of Labor," New York Times October 7. See lump of labor fallacy.

Krugman, Paul R. 2009. "Chinese New Year," Op Ed column in New York Times, December 31. See Thank-you note.

Krugman, Paul R. 2021. Arguing with Zombies: Economics, Politics, and the Fight for a Better Future, New York: W.W.Norton. See socialism.

Krugman, Paul R. and Maurice Obstfeld. 1991. International Economics, New York: Addison Wesley. See standard trade model.

Kuznets, Simon. 1955. "Economic Growth and Income Inequality," American Economic Review 45(1), (March), pp. 1-28. See Kuznets Curve.

Lafay, Gerard. 1992. "The Measurement of Revealed Comparative Advantages," in M.G. Dagenais and P.A. Muet eds., International Trade Modeling, London: Chapman and Hill, pp. 209-234. See Lafay Index.

Lakner, Christoph and Milanovic, Branko. 2013. "Global Income Distribution: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession," Policy Research Working Paper No. 6719. World Bank, Washington, DC. See elephant curve.

Lall, Sanjaya, John Weiss, and Jinkang Zhang. 2005. "The 'Sophistication' of Exports: A New Measure of Product Characteristics," QEH Working Paper Series -- QEHWPS 123, January. See export sophistication.

Lamy, Pascal. 2016. "The Changing Landscape of International Trade," Graham Lecture, Princeton University, April 7. See collective preferences.

Langhammer, Rolf J. 1999. "The WTO and the Millennium Round: Between Standstill and Leapfrog," Kiel Discussion Papers, No. 352, August 1992. See water in the tariff.

Laursen, Svend and Lloyd A. Metzler. 1950. "Flexible Exchange Rates and the Theory of Employment," Review of Economics and Statistics 32(4), (November), pp. 281-299. See Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect.

Leamer, Edward E. 1984. Sources of International Comparative Advantage: Theory and Evidence, Boston: MIT Press. See Endowments Paradox.

Leamer, Edward E. 1987. "Paths of Development in the Three-Factor n-Good General Equilibrium Model," Journal of Political Economy 95(5), (October), pp. 961-999. See Leamer triangle .

Leamer, Edward E. 1996. "The Effects of Trade in Services, Technology Transfer and Delocalisation on Local and Global Income Inequality," Asia-Pacific Economic Review 2(1), (April), pp. 44-60. See delocalization.

Leibenstein, Harvey. 1966. "Allocative Efficiency vs. 'X-Efficiency'," American Economic Review 56(3), (June), pp. 392-415. See X-efficiency.

Leontief, Wassily. 1933. "The Use of Indifference Curves in the Analysis of Foreign Trade," Quarterly Journal of Economics 57(3), (May), pp. 493-503. See community indifference curve.

Leontief, Wassily. 1953. "Domestic Production and Foreign Trade: The American Capital Position Reexamined," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 97(4), September, pp. 332-349; reprinted in Economia Internatiozionale 7, February, 1954, pp. 3-32. See input-output table, Leontief Paradox, Ohlin definition.

Leontief, Wassily. 1956. "Factor Proportions and the Structure of American Trade: Further Theoretical and Empirical Analysis," Review of Economics and Statistics 38(4), November, pp. 386-407. See Leontief Paradox.

Lerner, Abba P. 1934. "The Concept of Monopoly and the Measurement of Monopoly Power," Review of Economic Studies 1(3), (June), pp. 157-175. See Lerner index.

Lerner, Abba P. 1936. "The Symmetry between Import and Export Taxes," Economica 3(11), (August), pp. 306-313. See Lerner paradox, Lerner Symmetry Theorem, offer curve.

Lerner, Abba P. 1944. The Economics of Control: Principles of Welfare Economics, New York: Macmillan Co. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Lerner, Abba P. 1952. "Factor Prices and International Trade," Economica n.s. 19(73), (February). See Lerner Diagram.

Levy, Phil. 2012. "The 'Lump of Labor' Fallacy," Foreign Policy January 25. See lump of labor fallacy.

Lieber, Francis. 1869. Notes on Fallacies Peculiar to American Protectionists, or Chiefly Resorted to in America, New York: The American Free Trade League, July. See pauper labor argument.

Linder, Staffan Burenstam. 1961. An Essay on Trade and Transformation, New York: Wiley and Sons. See Linder hypothesis and home market effect.

Linnemann, Hans. 1966. An Econometric Study of International Trade Flows, Amsterdam: North-Holland. See gravity model.

Lipsey, R.G. 1962. Review of N. Kaldor, Essays on Value and Distribution and Essays on Economic Stability and Growth, 1960, Economic Journal 72(287), September, pp. 685-687. See stylized fact.

Lipsey, R.G. and Kelvin Lancaster. 1956. "The General Theory of Second Best," Review of Economic Studies 24, pp. 11-32. See second best and second-best argument for protection.

List, Friedrich. 1841. The National System of Political Economy. See infant industry protection.

Little, I. M. D. 1949a. "The Foundations of Welfare Economics," Oxford Economic Papers NS 1(2), June, pp 227-246. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Little, I. M. D. 1949b. "Welfare and Tariffs," Review of Economic Studies 16(2), 1949-1950, pp. 65-70. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Little, I. M. D. and J. A. Mirrlees 1974. Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing Countries London: Heinemann Educational. See LMST method.

Lucas, Robert E. 1976. "Econometric Policy Evaluation: A Critique," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 1, pp. 19-46. See Lucas critique .

Machlup, Fritz. 1939-40. "The Theory of Foreign Exchanges," Economica N.S. 6(24), November pp. 375-397 and 7(25) February, pp. 23-49. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Machlup, Fritz. 1950. "Elasticity Pessimism in International Trade," Economia Internazionale 3, (Feb), pp. 118-141. See elasticity pessimism.

Machlup, Fritz. 1965. "Why Economists Disagree," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 109(1), (Feb 18), pp. 1-7. See Holy Trinity.

Magee, Stephen P. 1973. "Currency Contracts, Pass-Through, and Devaluation," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1973(1), pp. 303-325. See J-curve.

Magnusson, Lars, ed. 1995. Mercantilism: Critical Concepts in the History of Economics, Volume IV: The Eighteenth Century, London: Routledge. See Most Favored Nation.

Malcomson, Scott. 2016. Splinternet: How Geopolitics and Commerce Are Fragmenting the World Wide Web, New York: OR Books. See splinternet.

Manning, Bayless. 1977. "The Congress, the Executive, and Intermestic Affairs: Three Proposals," "Foreign Affairs 55(2), January, pp. 306-324. See intermestic.

Marshall, Alfred. 1890. Principles of Economics, London: Macmillan and Co. See agglomeration economy, Marshallian externality, and terms of trade.

Marshall, Alfred. 1923. Money, Credit and Commerce, London: Macmillan and Co. See terms of trade, Marshall-Lerner condition, offer curve.

Maskus, Keith E. and Mohan Penubarti. 1995. "How Trade-Related Are Intellectual Property Rights?" Journal of International Economics 39, (November), pp. 227-248. See Maskus curve.

Matthews, Alan. 2000. "The WTO Agricultural Trade Negotiations After Seattle," Read before the Society, 24th January 2000, Proceedings of the Agricultural Economics Society of Ireland, 1999-2000, pp. 17-33. See water in the tariff.

Mattoo, Aaditya and Arvind Subramanian. 2000. "India and the Multilateral Trading System after Seattle: Toward a Proactive Role," SSRN 630749, 2000. See water in the tariff.

Mayer, Wolfgang. 1974. "Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium for a Small Open Economy," Journal of Political Economy 82(5), (Sep.-Oct.), pp. 955-967. See Ricardo-Viner Model.

McAdam, Graham. 1880. The Protective System: What it Costs the American Farmer, New York: New York Free Trade Club. See pauper labor argument.

McCallum, John. 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns" American Economic Review 85(3), June, pp. 614-623. See border puzzle.

McConnell, Margaret M. and Gabriel Perez-Quiros. 2000. "Output Fluctuations in the United States: What Has Changed Since the Early 1980s?" American Economic Review 90(5), December, pp. 1464-1476. See Great Moderation.

McDougall, F. L. 1937. Economic Appeasement, League of Nations, United Nations Archive, Geneva. See economic appeasement.

McIntyre, Arnold. 2000. "CARICOM and the WTO" Social and Economic Studies 49(1), pp. 83-112. See water in the tariff.

McKenzie, Lionel W. 1955. "Equality of Factor Prices in World Trade," Econometrica 23(3), July, pp. 239-257. See diversification cone.

Meade, James Edward. 1949. "A Geometrical Representation of Balance of Payments Policy," Economica , 16(64), pp. 305-320. See Lerner paradox.

Meade, James Edward. 1952. A Geometry of International Trade, London: Allen and Unwin. See Meade geometry and trade indifference curve.

Meade, James Edward. 1955a. The Theory of Customs Unions, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. See Meade Index.

Meade, James Edward. 1955b. Trade and Welfare London: Oxford University Press. See second-best argument for protection.

Melitz, Marc J. 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica 71(6), (November), pp. 1695-1725. See Melitz model, new new trade theory.

Melvin, James R. 1968. "Production and Trade with Two Factors and Three Goods," American Economic Review 58(5), (December), pp. 1249-1268. See Melvin indeterminacy.

Mendel, Noah. 2009. "When Did the Great Depression Receive Its Name? (And Who Named It?)," HNN History News Network, (February 15), See depression.

Metzler, Lloyd. 1948. A Survey of Contemporary Economics Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin. See Bickerdike-Robinson-Metzler Condition.

Metzler, Lloyd. 1949. "Tariffs, International Demand, and Domestic Prices," Journal of Political Economy 57(4), (August), pp. 345-351. See Lerner paradox, Metzler paradox.

Metzler, Lloyd. 1960. "The Process of International Adjustment under Conditions of Full Employment: A Keynesian View," paper read before the Econometric Society, December; reprinted in Richard E. Caves and Harry G. Johnson, eds., Readings in International Economics Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1968. See Metzler diagram.

Michealy, Michael. 1958. "Concentration of Exports and Imports: An International Comparison," Economic Journal 68(272), (December), pp. 722-736. See concentration.

Mill, James. 1821. Elements of Political Economy, London: Henry G. Bohn. See immiserizing growth.

Mill, John Stuart. 1848. Principles of Political Economy and Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy, 7th edition, London: Longmans, Green & Co. with introduction by W. J. Ashley. See infant industry protection and vent for surplus.

Mill, John Stuart. 1874. Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy, 2nd edition, London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. Preface to 1st edition says these essays had been written in 1829 and 1830. See vent for surplus.

Moghadam, Reza, Ranjit Teja, and Pelin Berkmen. 2014. "Euro Area -- 'Deflation' Versus 'Lowflation'," iMFdirect, March 4, 2014, online. See lowflation.

Minhas, Bagicha S. 1962. "The Homohypallagic Production Function, Factor-Intensity Reversals, and the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem," Journal of Political Economy 70(2), (April), pp. 138-156. See homohypallagic, CES function.

Mukerji, V. 1963. "A Generalized S.M.A.C. Function with Constant Ratios of Elasticity of Substitution ," Review of Economic Studies 30(3), (October), pp. 233-236. See SMAC function.

Mulder, Nicholas. 2022. The Economic Weapon: The Rise of Sanctions as a Tool of Modern War, New Haven: Yale University Pres. See All-Russian Cooperative Society, autarchia, boycott, collective security, Committee on Economic Sanctions, Convention of Oslo, Convention on Financial Assistance, Economic weapon, free good, Lend Lease Act, pacific blockade, Treaty of Constantinople, Twentieth Century Fund, United Nations, yen bloc.

Mundell, Robert A. 1960. "The Pure Theory of International Trade," American Economic Review 50(1), (March), pp. 67-110. See Cournot's law.

Mundell, Robert A. 1961. "A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas," American Economic Review 51(4), (September), pp. 657-665. See currency area and optimal currency area, .

Mundell, Robert A. 1962. "The Appropriate Use of Monetary and Fiscal Policy under Fixed Exchange Rates," IMF Staff Papers 9(1), (March), pp. 70-79. See assignment problem and Mundell-Fleming Model.

Mundell, Robert A. 1963. "Capital Mobility and Stabilization Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 29(4), (November), pp. 475-485. See Mundell-Fleming Model.

Mundell, Robert A. 1969. "Problems in the International Monetary System," in Robert A. Mundell and Alexander Swoboda, eds., Monetary Problems of the International Economy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 21-38. See Holy Trinity.

Mussa, Michael. 1974. "Tariffs and the Distribution of Income: The Importance of Factor Specificity, Substitutability, and Intensity in the Short and Long Run," Journal of Political Economy 82(6), (Nov.-Dec.), pp. 1191-1203. See Ricardo-Viner Model.

Mussa, Michael. 1979. "The Two-Sector Model in Terms of Its Dual: A Geometric Exposition," Journal of International Economics 9(4), (November), pp. 513-526. See Mussa diagram.

Mussa, Michael. 1986. "Nominal exchange regimes and the behavior of real exchange rates: evidence and implications," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 25, (Autumn), pp. 117-214. See Mussa puzzle.

Myint, Hla. 1958. "The 'Classical Theory' of International Trade and the Underdeveloped Countries," Economic Journal 68(270), (June), pp. 317-337. See vent for surplus.

Neary, Peter. 1978. "Short-Run Capital Specificity and the Pure Theory of International Trade," Economic Journal 88(351), (September), pp. 488-510. See Ricardo-Viner Model.

Neary, J. Peter. 1998. "Pitfalls in the Theory of International Trade Policy: Concertina Reforms of Tariffs, and Subsidies to High-Technology Industries," The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 100(1), March, pp. 187-206. See concertina tariff reduction.

Neary, Peter. 2004. "Monopolistic Competition and International Trade Theory," in Steven Brakman and Ben J. Heijdra, eds., The Monopolistic Competition Revolution in Retrospect, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 159-184. See Dixit-Stiglitz utility.

Ng, Francis. 2002. "Trade Indicators and Indices," Appendix B of Bernard Hoekman, Aaditya Mattoo, and Philip English, eds., Development, Trade, and the WTO: A Handbook Washington, DC: World Bank. See Hirschman index.

Novy, Dennnis. 2013. "International trade without CES: Estimating translog gravity," Journal of International Economics 89(2), March, pp. 271-282. See translog gravity.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 1980. "Intermediate Imports, the Terms of Trade, and the Dynamics of the Exchange Rate and Current Account,” Journal of International Economics 10, pp. 461-480. See terms of trade, terms of trade, Up or Down.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 1985. "The Capital Inflows Problem Revisited: A Stylized Model of Southern Cone Disinflation,” Review of Economic Studies 52(4), October, pp. 605-625. See ideal price index.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 2012. "Does the Current Account Still Matter?," Richard T. Ely Lecture, American Economic Review 102(3), (May), pp. 1-23. See balance of trade.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 2020. "Harry Johnson’s “Case for Flexible Exchange Rates” – 50 Years Later," NBER Working Paper #26874, March. See trilemma.

Obstfeld, Maurice and Kenneth Rogoff. 1996. Foundations of International Macroeconoics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See terms of trade, Up or Down.

Obstfeld, Maurice and Kenneth Rogoff. 2001."The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?" in Bernanke and Rogoff, eds., NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15. See home bias in trade, home bias in equities, international consumption correlations puzzle, exchange rate disconnect puzzle.

Obstfeld, Maurice and Alan M. Taylor. 1997."The Great Depression as a Watershed: International Capital Mobility over the Long Run," NBER working Paper #5960, March. See Trilemma.

Ohlin, Bertil. 1929a. "The Reparations Problem: A Discussion; Transfer Difficulties, Real and Imagined," Economic Journal 39(154), pp. 172-183. See transfer problem.

Ohlin, Bertil. 1929b. "Mr. Keynes' Views on the Transfer Problem. II. A Rejoinder from Professor Ohlin," Economic Journal 39(155), pp. 400-404". See transfer problem.

Ohlin, Bertil. 1933. Interregional and International Trade, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See Heckscher-Ohlin Model, Ohlin definition and price definition.

Ohyama, Michihiro. 1972. "Trade and Welfare in General Equilibrium," Keio Economic Studies 9, pp. 37-73. See revealed preference.

O'Neil, Shannon K. 2022. The Globalization Myth: Why Regions Matter, Counciil on Foreign Relations Books. See ASEAN-4, Eureka, regionalization, Societas Europaea.

O'Neill, Jim. 2001. "Building Better Global Economic BRICs," Global Economics Paper No. 66, Goldman Sachs, November 30. See BRICs.

Ottaviano, Gianmarco. 2015. "European Integration and The Gains From Trade," in Harald Badinger and Volker Nitsch, eds., Routledge Handbook of the Economics of European Integration, Chapter 12, pp. 173-187. See new quantitative trade model.

Paarlberg, Philip L. 1999. "Trade Negotiations Coming Again Soon," Purdue Agricultural Economics Report, June 1999. See water in the tariff.

Pareto, Vilfredo. 1906. Manual of Political Economy, published in Italian in 1906; French translation 1909; English translation 1971. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Pearce, Ivor F. 1952. "The Factor Price Equalization Myth," Review of Economic Studies 19(2), pp. 111-120. See Lerner-Pearce Diagram.

Phillips, A. W. 1958. "The Relationship between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wages in the United Kingdom 1861-1957," Economica 25(100), (November), pp. 283-299. See Phillips curve.

Pierce, Justin R. and Peter K. Schott. 2016. "The Surprisingly Swift Decline of US Manufacturing Employment," American Economic Review 106(7), July, pp. 1632-1662. See NTR gap.

Pigou, Arthur Cecil 1920. The Economics of Welfare, London: Macmillan and Co. See pigouvian.

Pigou, Arthur Cecil 1928. A Study in Public Finance, London: Macmillan and Co. See human capital.

Polak, J. J. 1947. "Exchange Depreciation and International Monetary Stability," Review of Economics and Statistics, 29, August. See Marshall-Lerner condition.

Porter, Gareth. 1999. "Trade Competition and Pollution Standards: 'Race to the Bottom' or 'Stuck at the Bottom'," Journal of Environment & Development 8(2), June, pp. 133-151. See stuck at the bottom.

Porter, Michael E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York: Free Press. See Porter's Diamond and value chain.

Porter, Michael E. 1991. "America's Green Strategy." Scientific American, 264(4), April, p. 168. See Porter hypothesis.

Posner, M. P. 1961. "International Trade and Technical Change," Oxford Economic Papers 13(3) (October), pp. 323-341. See technology gap model.

Posner, Michael. V. 1972. "The World Monetary System: A Minimal Reform Program," Essays in International Finance 96, (October), International Finance Section, Princeton University. See J-curve.

Pöyhönen, Pentti. 1963. "A Tentative Model for the Volume of Trade Between Countries," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 90 (1), pp. 93-99. See gravity model.

Prebisch, Raúl. 1950. "The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems". See Prebisch-Singer hypothesis.

Preston, Samuel H. 1975. "The Changing Relation between Mortality and Level of Economic Development," Population Studies 29(2), (July), pp. 231-248. See Preston Curve.

Price, W. H. 1905. "The Origin of the Phrase 'Balance of Trade'," Quarterly Journal of Economics 20(1), (November), pp. 157-167. See balance of trade.

Puga, Diego and Anthony J. Venables. 1995. "Preferential Trading Arrangements and Industrial Location," Discussion Paper No.1309, Centre for Economic Policy Research, December. See hub and spoke integration.

Pulliainen, Kyosti. 1963. "A World Trade Study: An Econometric Model of the Pattern of the Commodity Flows in International Trade in 1948-1960," Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift 16, pp. 78-91. See gravity model.

Quah, Danny T. 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," Economic Journal 106, (July), pp. 1045-1055. See twin peaks.

Rabushka, Alvin. 1987. “From Austerity to Growth: A New Role for the IMF,” Chapter 10 in Robert J. Myers, ed., The Political Morality of the International Monetary Fund: Ethics and Foreign Policy, Vol 3, Transaction Books: New Brunswick, USA. See Asian Tigers.

Ramo, Joshua Cooper. 2004. The Beijing Consensus, The Foreign Policy Center, May. See Beijing consensus.

Ramsey, Frank. 1927. "A Contribution to the Theory of Taxation," Economic Journal 37, March, pp. 47-61. See Ramsey rule.

Rauch, James E. 1999. "Networks versus Markets in International Trade," Journal of International Economics, 48(1), (June), pp. 7-35. See Rauch classification.

Reich, Robert B. 1983. "Beyond Free Trade," Foreign Affairs 61(4), Spring, pp. 773-804. See level playing field.

Reilly, W.J. 1929. "Method for the Study of Retail Relationships," University of Texas Bulletin, No. 2944. See gravity model.

Reisen, Helmut. 1993. "The Impossible Trinity in South-East Asia," International Economic Insights, March/April. See Impossible Trinity.

Reynolds, B. T. "The Situation in Europe -- A British View," The Military Engineer 26(147), May-June 1934, pp. 178-181. See beggar thy neighbor.

Ricardo, David. 1817. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, London: J. Murray. See law of comparative advantage.

Ricardo, David. 1951-1973. The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, edited by Piero Sraffa and M. Dobbs, Vols. I-XI, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. See comparative advantage.

Richardson, Martin. 1995. "Tariff Revenue Competition in a Free Trade Area," European Economic Review 39(7) (August), pp. 1429-1437. See internal trade deflection.

Roach, Stephen. 1997. "Angst in the Global Village," Challenge , 40:5, September/October, 95-108. See carry trade.

Robbins, Lionel. 1934. The Great Depression. See depression.

Robertson, Dennis H. 1938. "The Future of International Trade," Economic Journal 48(189), (March), pp. 1-14. See engine of growth.

Robinson, Joan. 1932. The Economics of Imperfect Competition, London: Macmillan. See monopsony.

Robinson, Joan. 1937. Essays in the Theory of Employment, London: Macmillan Co. See beggar thy neighbor, Marshall-Lerner condition.

Robinson, Joan. 1947. Essays in the Theory of Employment, 2nd edition, Oxford: Basil Blackwell. See Bickerdike-Robinson-Metzler Condition.

Robinson, Rochard D. 1967. "Control Strategy," Chapter 8 in International Management, Holt, Rinehart & Winston. See transnational corporation.

Rodrik, Dani. 2007. "The inescapable trilemma of the world economy," Dani Rodrik's weblog, June 27, 2007. See trilemma of the world economy.

Rodrik, Dani. 2011. The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy, New York: W. W. Norton. See hyperglobalization.

Rodrik, Dani. 2015. "Premature Deindustrialization," IAS School of Social Science, Economics Working Paper #107, January 2015. See premature deindustrialization.

Rodrik, Dani. 2018. Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. See hyperglobalization.

Rodrik, Dani, Arvind Subramanian, and Francesco Trebbi. 2004. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth 9(2), (June). See Washington Consensus Mark 2.

Rogoff, Kenneth. 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature 34(2), (June) pp. 647-688. See purchasing power parity puzzle.

Rose, Andrew K. 1994. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Monetary Policy, and Capital Mobility: Empirical Evidence on the Holy Trinity," Working Paper #4630, National Bureau of Economic Research, January. See Holy Trinity.

Rose, Andrew K. 2000. "One Money, One Market: Estimating the Effect of Common Currencies on Trade," Economic Policy, 30, pp. 9-45. See Rose effect.

Rosenbluth, Gideon. 1955. "Measures of Concentration," in NBER, Business Concentration and Price Policy Princeton, pp. 57-95. See Hirschman index.

Roy, A. 1951. "Some thoughts on the distribution of earnings," Oxford Economic Papers 3, pp. 135-146. See Roy Model and Ricardo-Roy Model.

Ruffin, Roy J. 2002. "David Ricardo's Discovery of Comparative Advantage," History of Political Economy 34(4), pp. 727-748. See comparative advantage.

Ruffin, Roy J. and Ronald W. Jones. 1977. "Protection and real wages: The neoclassical ambiguity," Journal of Economic Theory 14(2), pp. 337-348. See neoclassical ambiguity.

Ruggie, John Gerard. 1982. "International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order," International Organization 36(2), Spring, pp. 379-415. See embedded liberalism.

Ruhl, Kim J. 2008. "The International Elasticity Puzzle," working paper, March. See international elasticity puzzle.

Rybczynski, T.M. 1955. "Factor Endowments and Relative Commodity Prices," Economica 22(88), (November), pp. 336-341. See Rybczynski Theorem.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2005. The End of Poverty: How We Can Make It Happen In Our Lifetime, New York: Penguin Press. See triple transformation.

Sack, Alexander N. 1927. Les Effets Des Transformations Des États Sur Leurs Dettes Publiques Et Autres Obligations Financières, Paris: Recueil Sirey, (The Effects From Transformations of States on Their Public Debts and Other Financial Obligations) See odious debt.

Sack, Alexander N. 1947. "The Truman Doctrine in International Law," Lawyers Guild Review 7(1), January/February 1947, pp. 141-178. See odious debt.

Salant, Stephen and Dale Henderson. 1978. "Market anticipation of government policy and the price of gold," Journal of Political Economy 86, pp. 627-648. See Canonical model of currency crises.

Salter, W. E. G. 1959. "Internal and External Balance: The Role of Price and Expenditure Effects," Economic Record 35(71), August, pp. 226-238. See dependent economy model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1939. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 5, pp. 195-205. See gains from trade theorem and revealed preference.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1947. Foundations of Economic Analysis Harvard University Press. See Le Châtelier Principle.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1948. "International Trade and the Equalisation of Factor Prices," Economic Journal 58(230), (June), pp. 163-184. See factor price equalization and Heckscher-Ohlin Model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1949. "International Factor-Price Equalisation Once Again," Economic Journal 59(234), (June), pp. 181-197. See factor price equalization and Heckscher-Ohlin Model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1952. "The Transfer Problem and Transport Costs: The Terms of Trade When Impediments are Absent," Economic Journal 62(246), June, pp. 278-304. See deadweight loss.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1953. "Prices of Factors and Goods in General Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies 21(1), (October), pp. 1-20. See Heckscher-Ohlin Model and reciprocity conditions.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1954. "The Transfer Problem and Transport Costs, II: Analysis of Effects of Trade Impediments," Economic Journal 64(254), (June), pp. 264-289. See iceberg transport costs.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1960. "Harold Hotelling as Mathematical Economist," American Statistician 14(3), June, pp. 21-25. See deadweight loss.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1962. "The Gains from International Trade Once Again," Economic Journal 72(288), (December), pp. 820-829. See gains from trade theorem and utility possibility frontier.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1964. "Theoretical Notes on Trade Problems," Review of Economics and Statistics 46(2), (May), pp. 145-154. See Balassa-Samuelson Effect.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1971. "Ohlin Was Right," Swedish Journal of Economic 73(4), (December), pp. 365-384. See Ricardo-Viner Model, Jones-Samuelson model.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1981. "Bergsonian Welfare Economics," in S. Rosefielde, ed., Economic Welfare and the Economics of Soviet Socialism: Essays in Honor of Abram Bergson, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 223-266. See Bergsonian social welfare function.

Samuelson, Paul A. 1994. "Facets of Balassa-Samuelson Thirty Years Later," Review of International Economics 2(3), (October), pp. 201-226. See Penn effect.

Samuelson, Paul A. and F. Swamy. 1974. "Invariate Economic Index Numbers and Canonical Duality: Survey and Synthesis," American Economic Review 64(4), September, pp. 566-93. See ideal price index.

Sanghera, Sathnam. 2021. Empireland: How Imperialism Shaped Modern Britain, London: Penguin Random House. See Century of Humiliation, free-trade imperialism, South Sea Bubble, Treaty of Lhasa, Treaty of Nanjing.

Sanyal, Kalyan K. and Ronald W. Jones. 1982. "The Theory of Trade in Middle Products," American Economic Review 72(1), (March), pp. 16-31. See middle product.

Sato, Kazuo. 1976. "The Ideal Log-Change Index Number," Review of Economics and Statistics 58(2), pp. 223-28. See ideal price index, Sato-Vartia index, Sato-Vartia weights.

Sauvé, Pierre and James Gillespie. 2000. "Financial Services and the GATS 2000 Round," Brookings-Wharton Papers on Financial Services 2000, pp, 423-452. See water in the tariff.

Say, Jean-Baptiste. 1803. A Treatise on Political Economy or the Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Wealth. See infant industry protection.

Schloss, David Frederick. 1892. Methods of Industrial Remuneration, London: Williams and Norgate. See lump of labor fallacy.

Scitovszky, Tibor de. 1941. "A Note on Welfare Propositions in Economics," Review of Economic Studies 9(1), (November), pp. 77-88. See Kaldor-Hicks criterion.

Scitovszky, Tibor de. 1942. "A Reconsideration of the Theory of Tariffs," Review of Economic Studies 9(2), (Summer), pp. 89-110. See Scitovszky indifference curve, optimal tariff.

Searls, D. 2008. “The Splinternet” online blog December 18. See splinternet.

Second North Sea Ministerial Declaration. 1987. Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, London, 24-25 November. See Precautionary Principle.

Shaffer, Gregory. 2021. Emerging Powers and the World Trading System: The Past and Future of International Economic Law, New York, NY: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2021 See Agência de Promoção às Exportações, Agroicone, Beijing consensus, biopiracy, Center for Strategic and International Studies, certification, Chamber on Foreign Trade, CICC, Department of Trade Defence, economic cooperation agreement, father of the WTO, first order compliance, Fundação Getulio Vargas, Greater Brazil Plan, lawfare, Like-Minded Group, Memorandum of Understanding, Ministry of Commerce, public interest, regulatory coherence, transnational legal order, unequal treaty, UNO International Trade Strategy, WIPO Development Agenda.

Shephard, Ronald. 1953. Theory of Cost and Production Functions, New York: Princeton University Press. See Shephard's lemma.

Shibata, H. 1967. "The Theory of Economic Unions: A Comparative Analysis of Customs Unions, Free Trade Areas, and Tax Unions," in C. S. Shoup, ed., Fiscal Harmonization in Common Markets, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 145-264. See trade deflection.

Shirotori, Miho, Bolormaa Tumurchudur, and Olivier Cadot. 2010. "Revealed Factor Intensity Indices at the Product Level," Study Series No. 44, Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities, UNCTAD See revealed factor intensity.

Shortt, Adam. 1906. "The Anti-Dumping Feature of the Canadian Tariff," Quarterly Journal of Economics 20(2), February, pp. 250-258. See dumping, anti-dumping.

Siegel, Jeremy J. 1972. "Risk, Interest Rates and the Forward Exchange," Quarterly Journal of Economics 86(2), (May), pp. 303-309. See Siegel's paradox.

Singer, H.W. 1950. "U.S. Foreign Investment in Underdeveloped Areas: The Distribution of Gains Between Investing and Borrowing Countries," American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 40, (May), pp. 473-485. See Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis.

Slemrod, Joel, Carl Hansen, and Roger Procter. 1997. "The Seesaw Principle in International Tax Policy," Journal of Public Economics 65, (August), pp. 163-176. See seesaw principle.

Smith, Adam. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. See division of labor and vent for surplus.

Smith, H. B. Lees. 1905. "Review" of Barrie (1905) The Economic Journal 15(59) (September), pp. 406-407. See lump of labor fallacy.

Soloaga, Isidro and L. Alan Winters. 2001. "Regionalism in the nineties: What effect on trade?" North American Journal of Economics and Finance 12(1), pp. 1-29. See export diversion.

Solomon, Robert. 1996. "The History of the SDR," Chapter 3 in Boughton, James M., Peter Isard, and Michael Mussa, eds., The Future of the SDR in Light of Changes in the International Monetary System, International Monetary Fund, September 26, pp. 25-56. See Special Drawing Right.

Solow, Robert M. 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," Quarterly Journal of Economics 70(1), (February), pp. 65-94. See neoclassical growth model.

Solow, Robert M. 1957. "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function," Review of Economics and Statistics 39(3), (August), pp. 312-320. See Solow residual.

Soros, George. 1998. The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered, New York: Public Affairs. See market fundamentalism.

Spence, Michael. 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies 43(2), (June), pp. 217-235. See Spence-Dixit-Stiglitz.

Spraos, John. 1965. "Review" of Travis (1964) Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 128(4) 43(2), pp. 607-608. See Metzler paradox.

Squire, Lyn and Herman van der Tak. 1975. Economic Analysis of Projects Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. See LMST method.

Stackelberg, Heinrich Freiherr von. 1934. Marktform und Gleichgewicht (Market Structure and Equilibrium). See Stackelberg equilibrium.

Starrett, David. 1978. "Market Allocations of Location Choice in a Model with Free Mobility," Journal of Economic Theory 17(1), (February), pp. 21-37. See Starrett's Impossibility Theorem.

Stawarska, Renata. 1998. "Economics of the EU Enlargement: the Positive Case," Yearbook of Polish European Studies 2. pp. 135-152. See hub and spoke integration.

Stewart, J. 1947. "Empirical Mathematical Rules Concerning the Distribution and Equilibrium of Population," Geographical Review 37, pp. 461-485. See gravity model.

Stock, James H. and Mark W. Watson. 2003. "Has the Business Cycle Changed and Why?," NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, 17, (January), pp. 159-218. See Great Moderation.

Stolper, Wolfgang and Paul A. Samuelson. 1941. "Protection and Real Wages," Review of Economic Studies 9(1), (November), pp. 58-73. See Stolper-Samuelson Theorem, Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Stone, Richard. 1954. "Linear Expenditure Systems and Demand Analysis: An Application to the Pattern of British Demand," Economic Journal 64(255), (September), pp. 511-527. See Stone-Geary function.

Suganami, H. 1978. "A Note on the Origin of the Word 'International'," British Journal of International Studies 4(3), (October), 1978, pp. 226-232. See international.

Sumner, William Graham. 1885. Protectionism: The -Ism which Teaches that Waste Makes Wealth, New York: Henry Holt & Co. See infant industry protection.

Suzuki, Katsuhiko. 1976. "The Deterioration of the Terms of Trade by a Tariff," Journal of International Economics 6(2), May, pp. 173-18. See Lerner paradox.

Svensson, Lars E.O. 1994. "Fixed exchange rates as a means to price stability: What have we learned?" European Economic Review 38, pp. 447-468. See convergence trade.

Swan, Trevor W. 1955. "Long-Run Problems of the Balance of Payments," written but unpublished in 1955, later published in Arndt and Corden, eds., The Australian Economy 1963. See Swan diagram.

Syropoulos, Constantinos. 2002. "Optimum Tariffs and Retaliation Revisited: How Country Size Matters," Review of Economic Studies 69(3), (July), pp. 707-727. See trade war.

Swan, Trevor W. 1956. "Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation," Economic Record 32(2), (November), pp. 334-61. See neoclassical growth model.

Tarascio, Vincent J. 1972. "A Correction: On the Geneology of the So-Called Edgeworth-Bowley Diagram," Western Economic Journal 10, (June), pp. 193-197. See Edgeworth-Bowley box.

Taussig, Frank William. 1883. Protection to young industries as applied in the United States. A study in economic history,Cambridge: Moses King, Publisher. See infant industry protection.

Taussig, Frank William. 1927. International Trade, New York: Macmillan Co. See barter terms of trade, net barter terms of trade, gross barter terms of trade, and their origin.

Tehrani, R. 2008. “The Rise of the Splinternet” online blog January 17. See splinternet.

Thirlwall, A. P. 1979. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 128 (March), pp. 45-53. See Thirlwall's law.

Tinbergen, Jan. 1962. Shaping the World Economy: Suggestions for an International Economic Policy, New York: Twentieth Century Fund. See gravity model.

Tobin, James. 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking 1(1), (February), pp. 15-29. See Tobin's Q.

Tobin, James. 1978. "A Proposal for International Monetary Reform," Eastern Economic Journal 4(3/4), (Jul-Oct), pp. 153-159. See Tobin tax.

Torrens, Robert. 1815. Essay on the External Corn Trade, London: J. Hatchard. See comparative advantage.

Travis, William Penfield. 1964. The Theory of Trade and Protection, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See Integrated World Economy, Metzler paradox.

Trefler, Daniel. 1995. "The Case of the Missing Trade and Other Mysteries," American Economic Review 85(5), (December), pp. 1029-1046. See endowments paradox, home bias, and mystery of the missing trade.

Tullock, Gordon. 1967. "The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft", Western Economic Journal 5(3), June 1, pp. 224-232. See rent seeking.

Tullock, Gordon. 1989. The Economics of Special Privilege and Rent Seeking Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. See Harberger triangle.

Tyszynski, H. 1951. "World Trade in Manufactured Commodities, 1899-1950," Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies 19(3), (September), pp. 272-304. See constant market share analysis.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2004. São Paulo Consensus, TD/410, June 25. See policy space.

Valavainis-Vail, Stefan. 1954. "Leontief’s Scarce Factor Paradox," Journal of Political Economy 62(6), December, pp. 525-528. See Leontief Paradox.

Vanek, Jaroslav. 1965. General Equilibrium of International Discrimination: The Case of Customs Unions, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See Meade Index.

Vanek, Jaroslav. 1968. "The Factor Proportions Theory: The n-Factor Case," Kyklos 21(4), (October), pp. 749-756. See Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek Theorem.

Vartia, Yrjö O. 1976. "Ideal Log-Change Index Numbers," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 3(3), pp. 121-126. See ideal price index, Sato-Vartia index, Sato-Vartia weights.

Venables, Anthony J. 1985. "Trade and Trade Policy with Imperfect Competition: The Case of Identical Products and Free Entry," Journal of International Economics 19(1/2), (August), pp. 1-19. See delocation.

Venables, Anthony J. 1987. "Trade and Trade Policy with Differentiated Products: A Chamberlinian-Ricardian Model," Economic Journal 97(387), (September), pp. 700-717. See delocation.

Vernon, Raymond. 1966. "International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle," Quarterly Journal of Economics 80(2), (May), pp. 190-207. See product cycle.

Vernon, Raymond. 1971. Sovereignty at Bay: The Multinational Spread of US Enterprises, New York: Basic Books. See OBM.

Viner, Jacob. 1923. Dumping: A Problem in International Trade, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See dumping, export dumping, reverse dumping.

Viner, Jacob. 1937. Studies in the Theory of International Trade, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers. See single factoral terms of trade, double factoral terms of trade, and their origins; also 18th century rule and price-specie flow mechanism.

Viner, Jacob. 1950. The Customs Union Issue, New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. See trade creation and trade diversion.

Vogel, D. 1995. Trading up: Consumer and environmental regulation in a global economy, London: Harvard University Press. See California effect.

von Moltke, K. 1988. "The Vorsorgeprinzip in West German Environmental Policy," Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 12th Report, Best Practicable Environmental Option. Appendix 3, HMSO, London, February. See Precautionary Principle.

von Neuman, John. 1928. "Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele," Mathematische Annalen 100. pp. 295-320. See game theory, zero sum game.

Vousden, Neil. 1991. The Economics of Trade Protection, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. See Harberger triangle.

Waelbroeck, J. 1965. "On the Structure of International Trade Interdependence," Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles, pp. 495-511. See gravity model.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, New York: Academic Press. See World Systems Theory.

Wallich, Henry C. 1972. "The Monetary Crisis of 1971 -- The Lessons To Be Learned," in Henry C. Wallich, C. J. Morse, and I. G. Patel, eds., The Monetary Crisis of 1971 -- The Lessons To Be Learned, Washington, D.C.: The Per Jacobsson Foundation, pp. 3-40. See Inconsistent Trinity.

Watkins, Melville H. 1963. "A Staple Theory of Economic Growth," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 29(2), (May), pp. 141-158. See staple theory of economic growth.

Webb, Michael A. 1985. "Optimal commercial policy with imperfect foreign supply," Atlantic Economic Journal 13(4), December, pp. 39-42. See Lerner paradox.

Weidner, Helmut. 1986 "Air Pollution Control Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany," Environment Protection Engineering 12(1), pp. 29-104. See Precautionary Principle.

Weisman, Steven R. 2009 "Whence Cometh Beggar-Thy-Neighbor?" Realtime Economic Issues Watch, Peterson Institute for International Economics, February 10, 2009. See beggar thy neighbor.

Wells, David A. 1885. Practical Economics: A Collection of Essays Respecting Certain of the Recent Economic Experiences of the United States, New York: G. P. Putnam and Sons. See pauper labor argument.

Wijkman, Per Magnus. 1986. "Informal Systemic Change in the GATT," World Economy 9(1), (March), pp. 37-50.. See tariffication.

Williams, John H. 1929. "The Theory of International Trade Reconsidered," Economic Journal 39, (June), pp. 195-209. See vent for surplus.

Williamson, Jeffrey G. 1990. "The Impact of the Corn Laws Just Prior to Repeal," Explorations in Economic History 27(2), April, pp. 123-156. See Harberger triangle.

Williamson, John H. 1990. "What Washington Means by Policy Reform," in John Williamson, ed., Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See Washington Consensus.

Wilson, Charles. 1980. "On the General Structure of Ricardian Models with a Continuum of Goods: Applications to Growth, Tariff Theory, and Technical Change," Econometrica 48(7), (November), pp. 1675-1702. See continuum of goods.

Wolf, Martin. 1985. "How to Unravel the Multi-fibre Arrangement," The World Economy 8(3) (September), pp. 235-247. See tariffication.

Wolff, Alan Wm. 2023. Revitalizing the World Trading System, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. See Blair House Accord, Centre William Rappard, consensus, Cotton Four, Dispute Settlement Body, electronic commerce, Generalized System of Preferences, Haberler Report, import surcharge, International Trade Centre, joint statement initiative, moratorium on customs duties on electronic transmissions, open plurilateral agreement, reverse preference, shall endeavor provision, Special Agricultural Safeguards, special and differential treatment, Special Safeguard Mechanism, Standards and Trade Development Facility, Trade Facilitation Agreement, Trade Policy Review Body, universality, water in the tariff, zeroing.

Wonnacott, P. and M. Lutz. 1989. "Is There a Case for Free Trade Areas," in J. Schott, ed., Free Trade Areas and U.S. Trade Policy, Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. See natural trading partners.

Wonnacott, Ronald J. 1990. "U.S. Hub-and-Spoke Bilaterals and the Multilateral Trading System," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 23, October. See hub and spoke integration.

Working, Holbrook. 1949. "The Theory of Price of Storage," American Economic Review 39(6), December, pp. 1254-1262. See carry trade.

World Bank. 1985. The World Bank Atlas 1985, Washington, DC: The World Bank. See Atlas method.

Wyatt, Adward. 1996. "THE MARKETS' STUMBLE: THE WAIT; Fund Investors Hold Key To Health of Stock Market," New York Times, March 11. See carry trade.

Zahra, Tara. 2023. Against the World: Anti-Globalism and Mass Politics Between the Wars New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co. See alimentary autarky, Black Star Line, economic appeasement, empire free trade, grossraumwirtschaft, Habsburg Empire, internal colonization, Tariff Reform League.

Zietz, Joachim. 1988. "Strategies for Dealing with Agriculture in the Uruguay Round," Journal of Agricultural Economics 39(3), (September), pp. 382-386. See tariffication.

Zipf, George K. 1946. "The P1P2/D Hypothesis: The Case of Railway Express," Journal of Psychology, 22, pp. 3-8. See gravity model.

Zipf, George K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort, Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. See Zipf's law.

Zoellick, Robert B. 2000. "A Republican Foreign Policy,""Foreign Affairs, 79, pp. 63-78. See competitive liberalization.