It was only fairly recently (2021) that I realized that I should document the sources of some of the terms that I define or explain in the Glossary. I realized that especially when I was reading Irwin (2017) and was adding terms from there that I might later want to go back to. From then on, I've done my best to include my sources unless they came from a website that I was linking the term itself to.

Since then I have also made some efforts -- so far very incomplete -- to look back at terms that I had included in the Glossary previously. Where possible, if I can find a source for at least part of what I've written for the term, I've included that here as well. This typically is for terms that I would not have been familiar with myself.

17+1 Stuart Lau, "Lithuania pulls out of China's '17+1' bloc in Eastern Europe," Politico, May 21, 2021. Link
Aadhaar "Benefits of Aadhaar Card," BankBazaar. Link
"Hindi Word of the Year is… aadhaar!" Oxford University Press, January 30, 2018. Link
Abnormal Importations Act Irwin (2017 p. 489)
Acquis communautaire "Acquis communautaire," euABC Link
Act East K. V. Kesavan, "India's 'Act East' policy and regional cooperation," Observer Research Foundation, February 14, 2020. Link
Active labor market policy Krueger (2020 p. 276)
Agência de Promoção às Exportações Shaffer (2021 p. 287)
Agency security James Chen, "Agency Security," Investopedia, October 31, 2021. Link
Eichengreen (2011 p. 114)
Agglomeration economy "Can Silicon Valley still dominate global innovation?" The Economist, April 16, 2022. Link
Agricultural Adjustment Act Irwin (2017 p. 502)
Agroicone Shaffer (2021 p. 92)
Alimentary autarky Zahra (2023 p. 211)
All-Russian Cooperative Society Mulder (2022 p. 212)
Amber Road J. M. de Navarro, "Prehistoric Routes between Northern Europe and Italy Defined by the Amber Trade," The Geographical Journal 66(6), December 1925, pp. 481-503. Link
American Commercial Invasion Irwin (2017 p. 362)
American Relief Administration "American Relief Administration," Link
American selling price Irwin (2017 p. 635)
American system Irwin (2017 p. 178)
Anaconda Plan "AnacondaPlan," Encyclopedia Virginia. Link
Anglo-American Loan Gill Bennett, "What's the Context? Signing the Anglo-American Financial Agreement, 6 December 1945" History of Government blog,, December 7, 2020. Link
Eichengreen (2011 p. 184, ftnt 21)
Anglo-American Mutual Aid Agreement B.S.K., 'The Anglo-American Trade Agreement,' Bulletin of International News 15(24), Dec 3, 1938, pp. 3-10. Link
Anglo-American Trade Agreement B.S.K., 'The Anglo-American Trade Agreement,' Bulletin of International News 15(24), Dec 3, 1938, pp. 3-10. Link
Antidumping Act of 1916 Irwin (2017 p. 435)
APEC Blueprint for Action on Electronic Commerce "APEC Blueprint for Action on Electronic Commerce," Fandom. Link
Appeasement "Appeasement," Britannica Link
Apostle of protection Irwin (2017 p. 455)
Argol agreements Irwin (2017 p. 372)
Article 16 1. "The Covenant of the League of Nations," Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute, United States Department of State. Link
2. Tom Edgington and Chris Morris, "Brexit: What's the Northern Ireland Protocol?" BBC News, February 3, 2021. Link
ASEAN-4 O'Neil (2022 p. 108)
ASEAN Way Harsh Mahaseth and Aadya Narain, "The Use of The ASEAN Way In Resolving Disputes," Modern Diplomacy," June 22, 2022. Link
Autarchia Mulder (2022 p. 315)
Balance of Payments Program "Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revisions to Balance of Payments Program," Federal Register. Link
Bandung Conference "The Bandung Conference concludes," This Day in History, April 24, 1955, Link;
Susan Engel, "South-South Cooperation in Southeast Asia: From Bandung and Solidarity to Norms and Rivalry,"" Journal of Current South-East Asian Affairs, 38(2), 2019. Link
Base Erosion and Anti-Abuse Tax Davies, Jon, "GILTI, FDII and BEAT: What They Mean for U.S. Multinationals"", armanino, Apr 29, 2019. Link
Beggar thy neighbor Willis & Porter, "The Pencil of Nature: A New Discovery," 1839, p. 5, Link.
Armstrong, Stocks and Stock-jobbing in Wall Street, 1848, p. 20, Link.
Norris, W.E., The Fight for the Crown, 1898. Link
Everett, William, "Shall We Build More Warships?" The Advocate of Peace, March 1895. Link.
England, George Allen, The Golden Blight, 1916, Link
Beijing consensus 1. Han Liu, review of Weitseng Chen, ed., The Beijing Consensus? How China Has Changed Western Ideas of Law and Economic Development, Cambridge University Press, 2017, in International Journal of Constitutional Law 17(1), January 2019, Pages 375-378 Link
2. Shaffer (2021 p. 225)
Belt and Road Initiative James McBride, Noah Berman, and Andrew Chatzky, "China's Massive Belt and Road Initiative," Backgrounder, Council of Foreign Relations, updated February 2, 2023. Link
"China's Global Development Initiative is not as innocent as it sounds," The Economist, June 9, 2022. Link
Benign neglect Peter Kihss, "'Benign Neglect' on Race is Proposed by Moynihan," New York Times, March 1, 1970, Link;
Max Frankel, "Is Benign Neglect the Real Nixon Approach," New York Times, March 8, 1970, Link.
Berry Amendment Grier (2022 p. 220)
Bill of exchange "What Is a Bill of Exchange?" Investopedia. Link
Biopiracy "biopiracy," Merriam Webster Dictionary. Link
Shaffer (2021 p. 165)
Bioterrorism Preparedness Act Gulotty (2020 p. 98)
Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015 Ian F. Fergusson and Christopher M. Davis, "Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions," Congressional Research Service, june 21, 2019. Link
Black Death "Black Death," Link "
Black Star Line Zahra (2023) p. 121
Blair House Accord Wolff (2023) p. 259
Blood diamonds 1. Ecco Driscoll, "History Of Blood Diamonds And The Kimberley Process," Brilliant Earth. Link
2. "blood diamond," Brittanica Link
3. Douma, Pyt and Klaas van Walraven. 2000. "Between Indifference and Naïveté: Dutch Policy Interventions in African Conflicts, A Synthesis Report," Conflict Policy Research Project, Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael', October, p. 34. Link
Boao Forum for Asia "Chinese officials promise foreign investors greater access," The Economist, April 8, 2023. Link "
Board of Economic Warfare "Records of the Board of Economic Warfare (1941-1943)," Military Agency Records, Holocaust-Era Assets. Link "
Bolsa Familia Nowak, Jörg, "Brazil: The End of Bolsa Familia, Lula’s New Alliance, and Sergio Moro’s bid for the Presidency," SP: The Bullet, December 16, 2021. Link "
Border adjustment tax Gale, William G., "A quick guide to the 'border adjustments' tax," Real Clear Markets, February 7, 2017. Link
Bridgetown Initiative Victoria Masterson, "The Bridgetown Initiative: here's everything you need to know," Davos 2023, World Economic Forum, January 13, 2023. Link
British Big Bang "'Big Bang' Deregulation Bolsters London's Position as Global Finance Center," Goldman Sachs Link
British South Africa Company "British South Africa Company," Britannica. Link
Brooks-Murkowski Amendment R. Allen Ennis Jr., "The Major Projects Arrangements -- Is it a Solution to Japan's Closed Construction Market?" Global Business and Development Law Journal 6(1), 1993, p. 331. Link
Buenos Aires Consensus Geier, Kathleen, "How Economic Populism Is Transforming the Most Unequal Region of the Globe." The Nation, March 13, 2014. Link
Build America, Buy America Act "'Buy America' Preference in FEMA Financial Assistance Programs for Infrastructure," FEMA. Link
Build-operate-transfer Grier (2022 p. 188)
Bullwhip effect Diann Daniel, "Bullwhip Effect," Link
Burke-Hartke Bill Irwin (2017 p. 647)
Butter mountain Reinhorn, Leslie J., "Butter mountains and wine lakes," Economics Letters 94(2), February 2007, pp. 187-20 Link
Buy America Grier (2022 p. 17)
Buy American Act of 1988 "H.R.4848 - Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988," Link
Grier (2022 p. 33)
Buy American and Hire American "Practice Alert: Biden Administration Rescinds Buy American and Hire American (BAHA) EO and 2017 Computer Programmer Memo," American Immigration Lawyers Association, March 2, 2021. Link
Cable "Did social media cause the banking panic?" The Economist, April 1, 2023. Link
Carbon Border-Adjustment Mechanism "Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism," Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission. Link
Cargo Preference Act of 1954 "Cargo Preference," U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration. Link
Carry trade The earliest use of the terms "positive carry" and "negative carry" that I found was in 1958: Fand and Scott, "The Federal Reserve System's "Bills Only" Policy: A Suggested Interpretation,"" The Journal of Business, 1958, January, pp. 12-18. Somewhat later, the terms were used frequently in writings about futures market speculation. In the early 1980s, I found multiple sources that used the terms while also defining them. A good example is Van Horne and Heaton, "Securities Inventories and Excess Returns," The Journal of Financial Research 6(2), Summer 1983, p. 94.
    Therefore, inventories held long must be financed. A position is defined to have a positive carry if the coupon rate on the security held exceeds the interest cost of financing and to have a negative carry in the opposite situation.
CE "CE marking," Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs, European Commission. Link
Center for the Study of International Trade and Investment Shaffer (2021 p. 95)
Centre William Rappard Wolff (2023 p. 193)
Century of Humiliation Alison A. Kaufman, "The 'Century of Humiliation' and China's National Narratives," Testimony before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, March 10, 2011. Link
Sanghera (2021 p. 273)
Certification Source Shaffer (2021 p. 59)
Chaco Embargo "League Declares For Embargo on Arms to Paraguay And Bolivia," Madera Tribune, May 17, 1934. Link;
"U.S. Ends Chaco Embargo," New York Times, November 15, 1935. Link
Chamber on Foreign Trade Source Shaffer (2021 p. 86)
Change through trade Noah Barkin, "Germany's Strategic Gray Zone With China," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, March 25, 2020. Link
Chaperoning "Neil Robson Discusses 'Chaperoning' as a Brexit Workaround." Firm News, Katten, November 1, 2021. Link
China International Commercial Court Shaffer (2021 p. 238)
China Plus One Michaela Madden, "Everything You Need to Know About China Plus One," Z2Data Insights, August 25, 2023. Link
Chip-4 Alliance "The Chip 4 alliance will struggle to find cohesion in 2023," Economist Intelligence Unit, December 8, 2022. Link
Chocolate war Andrew Osborne, "Chocolate war over after 30 years," The Guardian, January 16, 2003. Link
Coast Guard William H. Thiesen, "Alexander Hamilton -- Founder of the U.S. Coast Guard and Namesake of NSC Hamilton," Link
Code of Trade Liberalization Irwin (2017 p. 622)
Collective security Mulder (2022 p. 24)
Colony "Colony," Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Link
Column 2 rates "Column 1 / Column 2 / MFN / NTR - Countries that does business with the United States," US Customs and Border Protection. Link
Commercially available off-the-shelf Grier (2022 p. 208)
Commission on Foreign Economic Policy Irwin (2017 p. 615)
Commission on International Trade and Investment Policy Irwin (2017 p. 645)
Committee of Twenty "Records Relating to the Committee of Twenty and to Two of Its Technical Groups," The World Bank, Archives. Link
Eichengreen (2011 p. 61)
Committee on Economic Sanctions Mulder (2022 p. 258)
Committee on Market Access "Market access for goods," Trade Topics, WTO. Link
Common Framework "The Common Framework for debt treatment beyond the DSSI," G20 Italy, Link
Communauté européenne Interglot, French to English. Link
Competitive liberalization Irwin (2017 p. 926)
Conditional MFN Irwin (2017 p. 437)
Conformity assessment "Conformity assessment," ISO,org. Link
"Conformity assessment," European Commission. Link
Consensus, positive and negative Wolff (2023 pp. 239-40)
Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act "The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA)," Consumer Product Safety Commission. Link
Gulotty (2020 p. 3)
Contagion Krueger (2020 p. 63 )
Container Levine, Judah, "The History of the Shipping Container," Freightos, April 24, 2016. Link
Contraband "contraband," Link
Controlled technology "U.S. Export Controls," International Trade Administration. Link
Convention of Oslo Mulder (2022 p. 239);
"Tariff Truce Reported," New York Times, Tuesday December 23, 1930. Link
Convention on Financial Assistance Mulder (2022 p. 29)
Cooperation and Facilitation Investment Agreement Potin, Nathalie M-P and Camila Brito de Urquiza, "The Brazilian Cooperation and Facilitation Investment Agreement: Are Foreign Investors Protected?" Kluwer Arbitration Blog, December 29, 2021. Link
Cotton Four Wolff (2023 p. 201)
Critical Raw Materials Regulation Théo Bourgery-Gonse, "EU unveils Critical Raw Materials Act, aiming to lessen dependence on China," EURACTIV, March 16, 2023. Link
Cross currency basis James, Jessica, Michael Leister, and Christoph Rieger, Random Walks in Fixed Income and Foreign Exchange, Chapter 1, "What Really is the Cross-Currency Basis?" 2021. Link
Currency manipulator "Factbox: Yellen's watchlist for the U.S. currency manipulator tag," Reuters, December 1, 2021. Link
Current account convertibility "What is current account convertibility and its Advantages," Link
Customs bond "What is a Customs Bond?" UPS Supply Chain Solutions Link
Also personal communication with PhD student Dyanne Vaught.
Cutter "Vessels: Cutter," Sea History for Kids, National Maritime Historical Society. Link
Data Free Flow with Trust Aidan Arasasingham and Matthew P. Goodman, "Operationalizing Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT)," Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 13, 2023. Link
Data localization requirement "What is data localization?," Cloudfare. Link
De minimis rule "America's tariff wall on Chinese imports looks increasingly like Swiss cheese," Economist, February 26, 2022. Link;
"De Minimis Value -- Express Shipment Exemptions," International Trade Administration Link
Debt distress Dalia Hakura, "What Is Debt Sustainability?" Finance & Development, International Monetary Fund, September 2020. Link
Debt restructuring Carol M Kopp, "Debt Restructuring: Definition, How It Works, Types & Examples," Investopedia, June 24, 2022. Link
Debt suspension clause Clemence Landers and Rakan Aboneaaj, "Should MDBs Be Leading the Adoption of Debt Pause Clauses?" blog post, Center for Global Development, April 13, 2023. Link
Debt sustainability Dalia Hakura, "What Is Debt Sustainability?" Finance & Development, International Monetary Fund, September 2020. Link
Debt trap diplomacy Rahul Ajnoti, "The Complete Story of Debt-Trap Diplomacy," TGP: The Geopolitics, October 11, 2022. Link
Decoupling Allen J. Morrison, "The Strategic Challenges of Decoupling," Harvard Business Review, May-June, 2021. Link
Deemed export "Deemed Exports," Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce. Link
Defense Production Act Siripurapu, Anshu, "What Is the Defense Production Act?"" Council on Foreign Relations, January 26, 2021. Link
Deglobalization Kornprobst, Markus and Jon Wallace, "What Is Deglobalization?" Chatham House, October 18, 2021. Link
Delors Report Eichengreen (2011 p. 87)
Department of Trade Defence Shaffer (2021 p. 115)
Derisking 1. "De-risking," U.S. Department of State. Link
2. "What does 'de-risking' trade with China mean?," The Economist, April 22, 2023. Link
Destination principle OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines: Guidelines on Neutrality, Committee on Fiscal Affairs, Working Party #9 on Consumption Taxes, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, June 28, 2011 Link
Developing country "Who are the developing countries in the WTO?" World Trade Organization. Link
Digital Markets Act Batchelor et al., "EU Digital Markets Act Enters Into Force on November 1, Creating New Regulatory Regime for Large Tech Platforms," Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, October 12, 2022. Link
Dirty compromise Irwin (2017 p. 85)
Dispute Settlement Body Wolff (2023 p. 188)
Doctrine of Immaculate Transfer Paul Krugman, "The Doctrine of Immaculate Transfer," New York Times, January 12, 2011. Link
Dodge Plan "Impact Of The Dodge Plan," Bartleby Research. Link
Eichengreen (2011 p. 48)
Doha Declaration on Public Health "TRIPS and Public Health," IISD Trade and Development Brief, No. 9, International Institute for Sustainable Development, Fall 2003. Link
Dollar gap Irwin (2017 p. 595)
Dollar Index "Dollar Index (DXY) the barometer for global currencies," Motilal Oswal Investment Servicves Link
Dollar smile Simon Constable, "What Is the Dollar's 'Smile'?" Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2020. Link
Stephen L.Jen and Fatih Yilmaz, "The 'Dollar Smile'," Eurizon SLJ Asset Management. Link
Double Irish Investopedia Link
Doux commerce Emma Borg, "The thesis of 'doux commerce' and the social licence to operate framework," Business Ethics, the Environment & Responsibility 30(3), July 2021, pp. 412-422. Link
East India Companies Chris Nierstrasz, "East India Companies," European History Online, December 19, 2022. Link
East India Company David Roos, "How the East India Company Became the World's Most Powerful Monopoly,", October 23, 2020. Link
Economic cooperation agreement Shaffer (2021 p. 172)
Economic appeasement Zahra (2023 p. 231)
Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement "It is time to divert Taiwan's trade and investment from China," The Economist, March 6, 2023. Link
Economic statecraft David A. Baldwin, "Economic statecraft," Britannica. Link
Economic Weapon, The Mulder (2022)
Ecu Eichengreen (2011 p. 95)
Eden-Rayneval Treaty of 1786 W. O. Henderson, "The Anglo-French Commercial Treaty of 1786," The Economic History Review 10(1), 1957, pp. 104-112. Link
Edge Act Neil Pinsky, "Edge act and agreement corporations: mediums for international banking," Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1975. Link
Electronic commerce Wolff (2023, p. 155)
Elephant curve Homi Kharas and Brina Seidel, "What's happening to the world income distribution? The elephant chart revisited," Brookings Report, April 2, 2008. Link
Embargo Act of 1807 Robert McNamara, "The Full Story of Thomas Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807," ThoughtCo. Link
Embraer-Bombardier dispute "Embraer Formally Ends WTO Case Against Bombardier Over CSeries," Aviation Week, February 18, 2021. Link
Empire free trade Zahra (2023) p. 185
Empire Marketing Board "Selling Empire: The Empire Marketing Board," The Open University, June 20, 2023. Link
Energy Crisis of the 1970s "Energy Crisis (1970s)," Link;
Graefe, Laura, "Oil Shock of 1978-79," Federal Reserve History, November 22, 2013. Link
ERM Crisis Bryon Higgins, "Was the ERM Crisis Inevitable?" Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 4th quarter 1993, pp. 27-40. Link
Establishment "Establishment, firm, or enterprise: does the unit of analysis matter?" Monthly Labor Review, Bureau of Labor Statistics, November 2016. Link
Eureka O'Neil (2022 p. 83)
Europe à la carte Link
European Chemicals Agency Gulotty (2020 p. 67)
Excepted Foreign State Schumpeter, "The row over US Steel shows the new meaning of national security," The Economist, February 15, 2024.
Export Control Act "Relations with Japan 1938-1940," Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931-1941, United States Department of State, Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1943, p. 97. Link
External rupee "Indian firms are flocking to the United Arab Emirates," The Economist, April 29, 2023. Link
Father of the WTO 1. Craig VanGrasstek, The History and Future of the World Trade Organization, World Trade Organization, 2013, p. 50. Link
Shaffer (2021 p. 193)
2. "Doha's Final Deadline," The Economist, November 16, 2006. Link
Claude Schwob, "The intellectual origins of WTO : Hull's and Bidwell's views on organizing the international trade," Working Papers of BETA 2009-32, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg, 2009. Link
Bryan Riley, "Sen. Hawley is Entitled to His Opinion On Trade, But Not His Own Facts," Blog, National Taxpayers Union, May 5, 2020. Link
Federal Acquisition Regulation Grier (2022 p. 205)
First order compliance 1. Beth A. Simmons, "Compliance with International Agreements," Annual Review of Political Science 1, 1998, pp. 75-93, p. 78. Link
2. Shaffer (2021 p. 214)
First sale customs valuation "Use of the 'First Sale Rule' for Customs Valuation of U.S. Imports,"" USITC #4121 Link
Flag of convenience "Flag of convenience," Cambridge Dictionary Link
Flexible tariff Irwin (2017 p. 429)
Floater "Why fuel shortages are spreading across Africa," The Economist, May 7, 2022. Link
Flow of funds "Flow Of Funds (FOF)," Investopedia Link
Food and Drug Administration Gulotty (2020 p. 97)
Food Safety and Inspection Service "Import Guidance," Food Safety and Inspection Service. Link
Food Safety and Modernization Act Gulotty (2020 p. 93)
Force Bill Irwin (2017 p. 219)
Foreign direct product rule "Understanding the Foreign Direct Product Rule," Export Compliance Training Institute, December 20, 2022. Link
Foreign Subsidies Regulation "Foreign Subsidies Regulation," Competition Policy, Europea Commission. Link
Fourteen Points "The Fourteen Points," The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Link
Four Motors for Europe "Four Motors for Europe," Link
Fragile Five Justin Kuepper, "What Are the Fragile Five?" The Balance, May 22, 2022. Link
Frankincense Trail Roberts, David, "On the Frankincense Trail," Smithsonian Magazine, October 1998 Link;
"What Was Traded In The Incense Trade Route?" WorldAtlas Link.
Free and Open Indo-Pacific "Achieving the 'Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)' Vision," Japan Ministry of Defense. Link
Lindsey W. Ford, "The Trump administration and the 'Free and Open Indo-Pacific'," Brookings, May 2020. Link
Anthony J. Blinken, "A Free and Open Indo-Pacific," speech at Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, December 14, 2021. Link
Free good Mulder (2022 p. 35)
Free Trade Convention Irwin (2017 p. 210)
Free-trade imperialism 1. Sanghera (2021 p. 166)
2. "Imperialism, Free Trade," Link
Fundação Getulio Vargas Shaffer (2021 p. 95)
G-33 "G33 (developing countries)," wikiwand Link
Gaucho "About: Gaucho (currency," Link
Gastastrophe 1. "gastastrophe," Urban Dictionary, by enshawntay November 24, 2008. Link
2. George Monbiot, "Gastastrophe," The Guardain, March 9, 2022. Link
Gate price mechanism Kakuyu Obara, John Dyck, and Jim Stout, "Pork Policies in Japan," Electronic Outlook Report from the Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, LDP-M-105-01, March 2003. Link
General Arrangements to Borrow "Group of Ten," A Guide to Committees, Groups, and Clubs, IMF. Link
General Data Protection Regulation "Cybersecurity and Data Privacy Compliance," US Signal Blog, October 25, 2022. Link
General Tariff of 1932 Simon P. Lloyd and Solomos Solomou, "The impact of the 1932 General Tariff: a difference-in-difference approach," Cliometrica 14, pp. 41-60, 2020. Link
Generalized System of Preferences Wolff (2023 p. 335)
Gentle commerce "About: Doux commerce," DBpedia. Link
Geo-blocking John Burke, "geo-blocking," TechTarget, May 2023. Link
Geoeconomics Marianne Schneider-Petsinger, "Geoeconomics explained," The World Today, Chatham House, December 9, 2016. Link
Geopolitics "Geopolitics Defined," International Studies, Utah State University. Link
Gephardt Amendment Irwin (2017 p. 719)
Global Arrangement on Sustainable Steel and Aluminum Trevor Sutton and Mike Williams, "Trade Beyond Neoliberalism: Concluding a Global Arrangement on Sustainable Steel and Aluminum," Center for American Progress, December 4, 2023. Link
Global Sovereign Debt Roundtable "Global Sovereign Debt Roundtable," International Monetary Fund, December 12, 2023. Link
Letter to The Economist, April 29, 2023. Link
Global Witness "Conflict Diamonds," Global Witness. Link
Going Global Huiyao Wang & Lu Miao, "'Going Global Strategy' and Global Talent," in China Goes Global, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2016. Link
Gold bloc Eichengreen (2011 p. 36)
Gold Pool Pat Heller, "The Failure Of The 1960s London Gold Pool," Numismatic News, August 15, 2019. Link
Gold window Sandra Kollen Ghizoni, "Nixon Ends Convertibility of U.S. Dollars to Gold and Announces Wage/Price Controls," Federal Reserve History. Link
Golden straitjacket Friedman, Thomas, "The Golden Straitjacket," News & Record, June 5, 1997, updated January 24, 2015. Link
Friedman (1999)
Gordie Howe International Bridge "Project Profile: Gordie Howe International Bridge," Federal Highway Administration. Link
Gray areas Krueger (2020 p. 173)
Great Debasement Stephen Deng, "The Great Debasement and Its Aftermath," Coinage and State Formation in Early Modern English Literature, 2011, p. 87. Link
Greater Brazil Plan Shaffer (2021 p. 116)
A Greater Brazil? Industrial Policy, Competitiveness, and Growth, Brazil-US Business Council Link
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Irwin (2017 p. 490)
Green protectionism "Green Protectionism," 5th WTO Ministerial Conference, Cancun WWF Briefing Series. Link
Greenspan put Eichengreen (2011 p. 110)
Gross domestic output "A Better Measure of Economic Growth: Gross Domestic Output (GDO)," Council of Economic Advisors Issue Brief, July 2015. Link
Grossraumwirtschaft "Reich Goes in for Big-Time Economy," New York Times, April 1, 1934. Link
Zahra (2023, p. 276).
Group of Ten "Group of Ten," A Guide to Committees, Groups, and Clubs, IMF. Link
"Profile," Bank for International Settlements, June 2001, p. 3. Link
Gucci exemption "Could the West punish China the way it has punished Russia?" The Economist, April 23, 2022. Link
Haberler Report Wolff (2023, p. 330).
Habsburg Empire Zahra (2023 p. xxiv)
Max-Stephan Schulze, Nikolaus Wolf, "On the origins of border effects: insights from the Habsburg Empire," Journal of Economic Geography 9(1), January 2009, p. 117-136. Link
Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act "S.945 - Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, 116th Congress (2019-2020)," Link
Human Development Index Source Link
Immigration Act of 1924 "Historical Highlights: The Immigration Act of 1924," History, Art, & Archives, United States House of Representatives. Link
"The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)," Office of the Historian, US Department of State. Link
"The Republican Party no longer believes America is the essential nation," The Economist, October 28, 2023. Link
Import and Export Library "Import & Export Library," Food Safety and Inspection Service. Link
Import Duties Act of 1932 Irwin (2017 p. 489)
Import price ceiling "Minimum import price / price band," AgripolicyKit. Link
Import surcharge Wolff (2023 Ftnt p. 184)
Indemnity "Differences between 'indemnity', 'remuneration', and 'redress?" English Language Lerners. Link
Indo-Pacific "Reinventing the Indo-Pacific," The Economist, January 4, 2023. Link
Inflation Reduction Act "The Inflation Reduction Act: Here's what's in it," Our Insights, McKinsey & Company, October 24, 2022. Link
Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act Grier (2022 pp. 211, 400)
Internal colonization 1. Liesbeth van de Grift, "Introduction: Theories and Practices of Internal Colonization," International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity, 2015.
2. Zahra (2023) p. 146
International Banking Corporation Eichengreen (2011 p. 17)
"International Banking Corporation," The British Museum Link
International Clearing Union James M. Boughton, "Why White, Not Keynes? Investing the Postwar International Monetary System," Working Paper WP/02/52, International Monetary Fund, March 2002. Link
Eichengreen (2011 p. 45)
International Procurement Instrument "EU international procurement instrument," Briefing, European Parliament, 2022. Link
International Refugee Organization "International Refugee Organization," Britannica Link
International Trade Centre Wolff (2023 p. 335)
Investment Protection Agreement "Investment Protection Agreements (IPA)," Ministry of Economic Affairs, R.O.C. Link
Iowa Idea Irwin (2017 p. 388)
Irish Miracle Kent Hill, Dennis Hoffman, and Mary K. Hoffman, "Lessons from the 'Irish Miracle'," Productivity and Prosperity Project, Arizona State University, June 2005. Link
Italian-Ethiopian Sanctions "Italo-Ethiopian War," Britannica. Link
Japanese Big Bang Robert Dekle, "The Japanese 'Big Bang' Financial Reforms and Market Implications," Journal of Asian Economics 9(2), pp. 237-249, 1998. Link
Jay Treaty Irwin (2017 p. 125)
Job polarization Keller, Wolfgang and Hâle Utar, 2016. "International Trade and Job Polarization: Evidence at the Worker-Level," NBER Working Paper #22315 (June). Link
Joint statement initiative Wolff (2023 p. 43)
Jokers Irwin (2017 p. 399)
Just-in-case Willy Shih, "From Just-In-Time To Just-In-Case: Is Excess And Obsolete Next?" Forbes, January 30, 2022. Link
Just-in-time Rosemary Carlson, "Just-In-Time (JIT) Inventory Management," The Balance Small Business, March 12, 2021. Link
Kissell Amendment "Government Procurement: Effect of Restriction on DHS's Purchasing of Foreign Textiles Is Limited," U.S. Government Accountability Office, November 21, 2017. Link
Know Your Customer "Know Your Customer in Banking," Thales Group. Link
Lawfare Shaffer (2021 p. 390)
League to Enforce Peace "League to Enforce Peace," Military Wiki, Fandom. Link
Legal person "legal person," Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Link
Lend-Lease Act Mulder (2022 p. 390)
Lending-into-Arrears Policy Makoff, Gregory. 2022. "Lending to Defaulters: The IMF Updates Its Lending into Arrears Policy," Policy Brief No. 175, Center for International Governance Innovation, August. Link
LIBOR "LIBOR will at last be switched off in June," The Economist, May 18, 2023. Link
Like-Minded Group Shaffer (2021 p. 147)
LOLR Free exchange, "The Fed smothers capitalism in an attempt to save it," The Economist, March 16, 2023. Link
London Gold Market "The London Gold Market," Bank of England, March 1, 1964 Link
Long-Term Arrangment "The History and Current Status of the Multifiber Arrangement," USITC #850, January 1978. Link
Look East Thongkholal Haokip, "India's Look East Policy: Its Evolution and Approach," South Asian Survey 18(2), September, 2011. Link
Managed trade Irwin (2017 p. 730)
Manchester Cotton Exchange Terry Wyke, "Manchester Royal Exchange," Revealing Histories: Remembering Slavery Link
Mandatory Oil Import Quota Program Cicchetti, Charles C. and Willian J. Gillen, "The Mandatory Oil Import Quota Program: A Consideration of Economic Efficiency and Equity,"" Natural Resources Journal 13(3), Summer 1973, pp. 399-430. Link
Military Cargo Preference Act of 1904 "Cargo Preference," U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration. Link
Market disruption "The History and Current Status of the Multifiber Arrangement," USITC #850, January 1978. Link
Market Oriented Sector Selective talks "U.S.-JAPAN TRADE: Evaluation of the Market-Oriented Sector-Selective Talks," GAO, July 1988. Link
Marshall-Dodge fixed-rate dollar standard Eichengreen (2011 p. 49)
Maximum-minimum tariff schedule Irwin (2017 p. 436)
Méline tariff Irwin (2017 p. 370)
Memorandum of Understanding Will Kenton, "Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Defined, What's In It, Pros/Cons, MOU vs MOA," Investopedia, July 13, 2022. Link
Shaffer (2021 p. 268)
Metageography "Martin Lewis: Metageographies, postmodernism and fallacy of unit comparability," Exploring Geopolitics. Link
Middle income trap Gill, Indermit S. and Homi Kharas, "The Middle-Income Trap Turns Ten," Policy Research Working Paper 7403, World Bank, August 2015. Link.
Mills Bill 1. Irwin (2017 p. 317)
2. Irwin (2017 p. 639)
Ministry of Commerce Shaffer (2021 p. 182)
Ministry of Economic Warfare "Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84)," State Department and Foreign Affairs Records, Holocaust-Era Assets, National Archives. Link
Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation "Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation," China Unique. Link
MIR "MIR (National Payment Card)," Link
Mirror reciprocity Gulotty (2020 p. 135)
Mittelstand Hermann Simon, "Lessons from Germany's Midsize Giants," Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1992. Link
Molotov Plan "Molotov Plan," Link
Morroe Berger, "How the Molotov Plan Works," The Antioch Review 8(1), Spring 1948, pp. 17-25. Link
Mongrel Tariff Irwin (2017 p. 287)
Monitoring List "Factbox: Yellen's watchlist for the U.S. currency manipulator tag," Reuters, December 1, 2021. Link
Moratorium on customs duties on electronic transmissions "WTO members intensify discussion on e-commerce moratorium," WTO, July 18, 2023. Link
Wolff (2023 p. 325)
Most Favored Nation "Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between Spain and Great Britain," Wikisource Link
Multilateral-bilateral Irwin (2017 p. 565)
Nansen passport Cara Giaimo, "The Little-Known Passport That Protected 450,000 Refugees," , February 7, 2017. Link
New International Trade Crossing "New International Trade Crossing Proposal," Office of the Michigan Governor, September 2011 Link
New Southbound Policy "Taiwan's New Southbound Policy," CSIS, July 2019. Link
"It is time to divert Taiwan's trade and investment from China," The Economist, March 6, 2023. Link
NITI Aayog "Highlights of initiatives under NITI Aayog," Press Information Bureau. Government of India, June 2, 2017. Link
Non-intercourse Act Irwin (2017 p. 132)
Nonimportation Agreements Irwin (2017 p. 58)
Nonviolation Gulotty (2020 p. 139)
Normal Trade Relations Sadly, I no longer recall, and cannot find, the source of this quotation.
Northern Ireland Protocol Tom Edgington and Chris Morris, "Brexit: What's the Northern Ireland Protocol?" BBC News, February 3, 2021. Link
Nullification crisis Irwin (2017 p. 206)
Oceania "Oceania," Britannica Link
Open Door Notes Irwin (2017 p. 371)
Open mouth policy Eichengreen (2011 p. 63)
Open plurilateral agreement Wolff (2023 p. 148)
Open Skies Agreement "Fly America Act," U.S. General Services Administration. Link
Opinion 2/15 Despoina Loupi, "Opinion 2/15 and EU competence for common commercial policy," Maastricht University, September 17. 2017. Link
Grier (2022 p. 353)
Organisation Internationale de Normalisation Gulotty (2020 p. 57)
Organization for Trade Cooperation Irwin (2017 p. 618)
Origin principle OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines: Guidelines on Neutrality, Committee on Fiscal Affairs, Working Party #9 on Consumption Taxes, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, June 28, 2011 Link
Osaka Track "The G20 Osaka Data Track raises controversy," digwatch, July 1, 2019. Link
Our currency, your problem Mike Hassaballa, "Our Currency, Your Problem," Data Driven Investor, September 2, 2022. Link
Pacific Alliance "What Is the Pacific Alliance?" Alianza del Pacífico, Link.
Pacific blockade "Pacific blockade," Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Link;
Mulder (2022 p. 36)
Pain trade "Pain Trade," Forexpedia. Link.
"Investors have reason to fear a strong economy," The Economist, April 29, 2023. Link.
Panama Papers "What are the Panama Papers? A guide to history's biggest data leak," The Guardian. Link.
Paneuropean Union "About: Paneuropean Union," DBpedia. Link
Para-tariff "Para-tariffs definition," Law Insider, Link
Parallel import "Parallel Imports / Gray Market," International Trademark Association, Link
Paris Declaration of 1856 "Declaration Respecting Maritime Law. Paris, 16 April 1856," Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries, International Committee of the Red Cross. Link
Partnership Irwin (2017 p. 820)
Passporting Brian Beers, "Passporting," Investopedia, August 26, 2021, Link
Patent box "What Is a Patent Box?" TaxEdu, Tax Foundation, Link.
"Use the Patent Box to reduce your Corporation Tax on profits,", Link.
Pauper labor argument Brownlow, William G. 1844. A Political Register, Setting Forth the Principles of the Whig and Locofoco Parties in the United States, with the Life and Public Services of Henry Clay, Jonesborough, Tenn: The Jonesborough Whig, p. 67.
Littell, John S. 1844. "A Sketch of the Life, Public Services, and Character of Henry Clay," in ("prefixed to") The Clay Minstrel or National Songster, New York: Greeley and M'Elrath, p. 31.
Whig Congressional Committee. 1844. The Prospect Before Us, Locofoco Imposition Exposed. To the People of the United States, Published by order of Hon. Willis Green, Chairman of the Whig Congressional Executive Committee, at Washington, July 25, p. 5.
Pax Mongolica "Pax Mongolica," Silk Road: History of the Silk Road. Link
Payment at sight Justin Pritchard, "Different Types of Letters of Credit," The Balance, December 10, 2021, Link.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act Irwin (2017 p. 394)
PEM Convention "The pan-Euro-Mediterranean cumulation and the PEM Convention," Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission, Link
Perverse loop Lorenzo Bini Smaghi, "The perverse loop that is the euro's key weakness," Financial Times, March 2, 2018, Link
Phantom GDP Mark Thoma, "Michael Mandel: Phantom GDP?" Economist's View, June 8, 2007, Link
PHARE Programme "The PHARE Programme and the enlargement of the European Union," Briefing No 33, European Parliament, December 4, 1998, Link
Precautionism Hans van Leeuwen, "Trade's new bogeyman isn't protectionism -- it's 'precautionism'," Financial Review, May 18, 2020. Link
Prespa Agreement Katerina Topalova, "North Macedonia, Greece: Rewriting History after Prespa," Reporting Democracy, June 17, 2020, Link
Price band "Minimum import price / price band," AgripolicyKit. Link
Privateering Eichengreen (2011 p. 180, ftnt 5)
Profit shifting Gulotty (2020 p. 13)
Prohibitory Act Irwin (2017 p. 65)
Prosper Africa Zainab Usman and Katie Auth, "The Three Issues That Will Make or Break the Prosper Africa Initiative," Policy Outlook, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, May 18, 2022. Link
Protected designation of origin "Quality Schemes Explained," European Commission. Link
Prussian Tariff of 1818 Henderson, W. O., "The Zollverein," History New Series 19(73), June 1934, pp. 1-19. Link
Public interest Shaffer (2021 p. 118)
Sanjay Notani, Mrugank Kamdar, and Tanaya Sethi, "Public interest and balance in anti-dumping measures," India Business Law Journal, June 8, 2018. Link
Public Law 480 "Public Law 480: 'Better Than a Bomber'," Middle East Report 145, March/April 1987, Link
Public private partnership Grier (2022 p. 116)
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue Patrick Gerard Buchan and Benjamin Rimland, "Defining the Diamond: The Past, Present, and Future of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue," CSIS Briefs, March 2020, Link
Quota novanta Davide Bernardi and Roberto Ricciuti, "An Economic Analysis of 'Quota 90'," Working Paper #9, Department of Economics, University of Verona, June 2021. Link
REACH "REACH," European Commission. Link
Gulotty (2020 p. 22)
Realignment Eichengreen (2011 p. 82)
Recession "Business Cycle Dating Procedure: Frequently Asked Questions," NBER. Link
Reciprocal Defense Procurement Agreement Grier (2022 p. 157)
Reciprocal mercantilism Gulotty (2020 p. 136). He attributes the term to Krugman (1997b), though Krugman states the idea, but does not quite use the term.
Reciprocity up Gulotty (2020 p. 138)
Regionalization 1. Steven A. Altman and Caroline R. Bastian, "Trade Regionalization: More Hype Than Reality?" Harvard Business Review, May 31, 2022. Link
2. O'Neil (2022)
Regulatory coherence Shaffer (2021 p. 112)
USTR, "Regulatory Coherence," TPP: Made in America Link
Regulatory protection Gulotty (2020
Relative specificity George Tuttle, III," "Harmonized Tariff Classification -- What You Need to Know!" Customs Brokers & Freight Forwarders Association of Northern California December Education Event, p. 37, December 14, 2016, Link
Repurchase agreement "Repo and Reverse Repo Agreements," Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Link
Residential Profit Allocation by Income Eric Toder, "Is A Modified Destination-Based Income Tax The Solution For Taxing Global Multinational Corporations?" TaxVox: Business Taxes, Tax Policy Center, April 15, 2020, Link.
Resilience and Sustainability Trust "The IMF faces a nightmarish identity crisis", The Economist, April 8, 2023. Link.
Restitution "Reps. Panetta, Valadao Introduce the Bipartisan China Trade Cheating Restitution Act", Link.
Revenue Act of 1913 Joseph J. Thorndike, "Tax History: Original Intent and the Revenue Act of 1913," Tax History Project, Article Archive, TaxAnalysts, Link.
"Underwood Tariff," History Central, Link.
Revenue Cutter Service "A Brief History of the Revenue Cutter Service," Patriot Wood. Link
Reverse consensus "WTO Bodies involved in the dispute settlement process," Dispute Settlement System Training Module: Chapter 3, World Trade Organization Link
Reverse countertrade Thomas B. McVey, "Countertrade and Barter: Alternative Trade Financing by Third World Nations," Maryland Journal of International Law 6(2), 1981, p. 202, Link
Reverse Lend-Lease D. P. E., "Lend-Lease and Reverse Lend-Lease Aid: Part II," Bulletin of International News 22(4), February 17, 1945, pp. 157-164. Link
Reverse preference Wolff (2023 p. 331)
Rotterdam Rules "The Rotterdam Rules," UNCTAD, Link
Sakoku "Sakoku (Closure of Country)," sakoku.pdf Link
São Paulo Consensus "UNCTAD XI Concludes With Adoption Of Sao Paulo Consensus' Part 1 of 2," Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, June 21, 2004. Link
Scarce currency clause "scarce currency clause," Oxford Reference Link
Eichengreen (2011 p. 184 ftnt 17)
Scientific justification Gulotty (2020 p. 171)
Screwdriver plant Mair, A. "Screwdriver Plant or Independent Automobile Producer?" in Honda's Global Local Corporation. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1994, p. 87. Link
Sea turtle "As attitudes to the West sour, China's students turn home," The Economist, January 21, 2021. Link
Section 301 Grier (2022 p. 290)
Section 806.30 "Imports Under Items 805.30 and 807.00 of the Tariff Schedule-S of the United States, 1984-87," Report on Investigation No. 332-237, Under Section 332(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, USITC Publication 2144, December 1988. Link
Section 807.00 "Imports Under Items 805.30 and 807.00 of the Tariff Schedule-S of the United States, 1984-87," Report on Investigation No. 332-237, Under Section 332(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, USITC Publication 2144, December 1988. Link
Secured Overnight Financing Rate "Secured Overnight Financing Rate Data," Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Link
Self-notification Gulotty (2020 p. 53)
Semiconductor Agreement Johnson, Bryan, "The U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Agreement: Keeping Up the Managed Trade Agenda," Explore Issues, The Heritage Foundation, January 24, 1991, Link
Service mark "Service Mark," Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, Link
Set aside Grier (2022 p. 189)
Shall endeavor provision Wolff (2023 p. 310)
Shanzhai culture "Shanzhai creativity: when fake becomes original," HFG: Law and Intellectual Property, Link.
Short-Term Arrangement "The History and Current Status of the Multifiber Arrangement," USITC #850, January 1978. Link
Shuttle trade E-mail from Ksenia Yudaeva to Bob Stern June 7, 2002;
"Shuttle Trade," Eleventh Meeting of the IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics Washington, D.C., October 21-23, 1998, Link
Sight Letter of Credit Justin Pritchard, "Different Types of Letters of Credit," The Balance, December 10, 2021, Link.
Silver Purchase Act "Silver Purchase Act of 1934 (United States)," Encyclopedia of Money, Link
Slave Trade Act "How did the slave trade end in Britain?" Royal Museums Greenwich. Link
Slowbalisation "Globalisation has faltered," Economist, January 24, 2019. Link
Smiling curve Ming Ye, Bo Meng, and Shang-jin Wei, "Measuring Smile Curves in Global Value Chains," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 82(5), October 2020, pp. 988-1016. Link
Smithsonian Agreement "The Smithsonian Agreement," Federal Reserve History. Link
Snake in the Lake Eichengreen (2011 p. 78)
Sneaky protectionism Jürgen Wandel, "Do free trade agreements promote sneaky protectionism? A classical liberal perspective," International Journal of Management and Economics 55(3), 2019, pp. 185-200. Link
Societas Europaea "Societas Europaea/European Company," Link
O'Neil (2022 p. 85)
Soft commerce "About: Doux commerce," DBpedia. Link
Softwood lumber dispute "Summary and Explanation of the U.S.-Canada Lumber Dispute," Link
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Terry Stewart, "The South Sea Bubble," Historic UK. Link
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Wolff (2023 p. 260)
Special and differential treatment Wolff (2023 p. 112)
Special Drawing Right "General Allocations of SDRs," SPECIAL DRAWING RIGHTS (SDR) Link
Special Safeguard Mechanism Wolff (2023 p. 261)
Special Trade Representative Irwin (2017 p. 663)
Specific trade concern Robert Wolfe, "Reforming WTO conflict management: why and how to improve the use of 'specific trade concerns'," Working Paper, EUI RSCAS, 2020/53, Global Governance Programme, European University Institute. Link
SPFS Devonshire-Ellis, Chris, "SPFS -- Russia's Alternative To SWIFT," Russia Briefing from Dezan Shira & Associates, December 15, 2021. Link
Spice Routes "What are the Spice Routes?" UNESCO Link
Stabilization Fund Eichengreen (2011 p. 46)
Stagflation Matthew Boesler and Emily Graffeo, "What's Stagflation, and Why Is It Such a Worry Now?" The Washington Post, July 15, 2022. Link
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Stamp Act "Stamp Act,", Link
Standards and Trade Development Facility Wolff (2023 p. 213)
Stop-go cycle Krueger (2020 p. 234)
Stormont brake Padraic Halpin, "What is the Stormont Brake?" Reuters, February 28, 2023. Link
Strategic autonomy Giovanni Grevi, "Strategic autonomy for European choices: The key to Europe's shaping power," Discussion Paper, European Policy Centre, July 19, 2019. Link
Structural Impediments Initiative Matsushita, Mitsuo, "The Structural Impediments Initiative: An Example of Bilateral Trade Negotiation," Michigan Journal of International Law 12(2), 1990, Link
Substitution account Eichengreen (2011 p. 66)
Suez Crisis Charles Williams, Harold MacMillan, London: Phoenix Books, 2009, Ch. 16.
Sugar Act of 1764 Irwin (2017 p. 57)
Sunrise industry "Sunrise Industry," Investopedia Link
Super 301 Baker, Arnold, Felicia Gross, and Edward Tower, "Super 301 Trade Sanctions: An Empirical Investigation of the Wood Products Case," North American Journal of Economies and Finance 8(1), pp. 39-55, Link
Surety company "What are Surety Companies?" National Association of Surety Bond Producers. Link
Also personal communication with PhD student Dyanne Vaught.
Surrender requirement Jorge Ivan Canales-Kriljenko, "Foreign Exchange Intervention in Developing and Transition Economies: Results of a Survey," IMF Working Paper WP/03/95, May 2003, Link
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Systemic 5 "Consolidated Spillover Report: Implications from the Analysis of the Systemic-5," International Monetary Fund, November 7, 2011, Link
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Tariff Act of 1789 Michael P. Malloy, "Tariff Act Of 1789," Link
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Tariff anomaly "Tariff Anomaly," The Free Financial Dictionary. Link
Tariff Board Irwin (2017 p. 395)
Tariff deficit "Electricity Tariff Deficit: Temporary or Permanent problem in the EU?" Economic and Financial Affairs, European Commission. Link
Tariff engineering "Is Tariff Engineering Beneficial for Importers?" Customs, Import, Industry Spotlight, June 18, 2019, Link
Tariff equality Irwin (2017 p. 443)
Tariff exclusion Schwartzenberg, Andres B., "Section 301 Tariff Exclusions on U.S. Imports from China," Congressional Research Service, In Focus, updated February 17, 2022. Link
Tariff overhang Mostafa Beshkar, Eric W. Bond, and Youngwoo Rho, "Tariff binding and overhang: Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics 97:1, September, 2015, pp. 1-13. Link
Tariff reform Zebel, Sydney H. "Joseph Chamberlain and the Genesis of Tariff Reform," Journal of British Studies, January, 2014. Link
Tariff Reform League Zahra (2023 p. 44)
Andrew S. Thompson, "Tariff Reform: An Imperial Strategy, 1903-1913," The Historical Journal 40(4), December 1997, pp. 1033-1054. Link
Tax buoyancy Mohammed Yousuf and S. M. Jakaria Huq, "Elasticity and Buoyancy of Major Tax Categories: Evidence from Bangladesh and Its Policy Implications," Research Study Series No. - FDRS 03/2013, Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh, 2013. Link
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act Davies, Jon, "GILTI, FDII and BEAT: What They Mean for U.S. Multinationals", armanino, Apr 29, 2019. Link
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Taxation at origin OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines: Guidelines on Neutrality, Committee on Fiscal Affairs, Working Party #9 on Consumption Taxes, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, June 28, 2011 Link
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Tea Horse Road "Asia's ancient Tea Horse Road," BBC Link
Tesobono Nora Lustig, "The Mexican Peso Crisis: the Foreseeable and the Surprise," Brookings Institution, June 1995 Link
Textile and Apparel Trade Enforcement Act H.R.1562 - "Textile and Apparel Trade Enforcement Act of 1985." Link
Threshold Grier (2022 p. 99)
Tilsit treaty "Treaties of Tilsit," Oxford Reference. Link
Townshend Revenue Act Irwin (2017 p. 59)
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Eichengreen (2011 p. 15)
Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 Price, Joseph H., "The Trade and Tariff Act of 1984: An Analytical Overview," International Lawyer 19(1), 2018 Link;
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Trade cheats Ana Monteiro, "US Senators Seek to Stop Trade Cheats With Customs Arsenal Boost," Newsletter, Bloomberg, February 20, 2023. Link
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Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership "Negotiations," under "The EU and the United States," in "United States," Trade, European Commission: "[Negotiations] were formally closed in 2019." Link
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Treaty of Amity and Commerce Irwin (2017 p. 66)
Treaty of Constantinople Mulder (202 p. 305)
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Treaty of Nanjing Kallie Szczepanski, "What You Should Know About Unequal Treaties," ThoughtCo, November 24, 2019. Link
Sanghera (2021 p. 273)
Treaty of Utrecht See Most Favored Nation
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Tripartite Agreement of 1936 Ian M. Drummond, London, Washington, and the Management of the Franc, 1936-39, Princeton Studies in International Finance, No. 45, November, 1979. Link
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Triple transformation rule Jones, Vivian C. and Liana Wong, "International Trade Rules of Origin," Congressional Research Service RL34524, Updated March 3, 2020. Link
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Twentieth Century Fund Mulder (2022 p. 253)
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Two tier gold market Eichengreen (2011 p. 58)
Unconditional MFN Irwin (2017 p. 437)
Unequal treaty 1. Kallie Szczepanski, "What You Should Know About Unequal Treaties," ThoughtCo, November 24, 2019. Link
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United Nations Mulder (2022 p. 358)
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US-Japan NTT Agreement Grier (2022 p. 293)
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